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Christopher Hartney


From 1926, Caodaism (Đạo Cao Đài) has flourished as the centre of new religious development in Vietnam. Its vast and complex syncretic theology continues to serve as a meeting ground between an East Asian tradition revivified (animism, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and ancestor worship) and a colonialist modernity localised (Catholicism, French Masonry, Theosophy, and Spiritualism). One of the significant paradigms through which this sacred re-narration of Vietnamese religious history can be conceptualised is through the great mural of the religion. Created to adorn the vestibule of every temple to God, the mural contains three historical figures that represent in essence the wider Caodaist religious and cultural project. In this chapter I examine in detail the symbolic relevance of these figures, Vietnamese poet and seer Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm [1491-1585], leader of the Chinese nationalist revolution Dr Sun Yat Sen [1866-1925], and French author Victor Hugo [1802-1885]. Separately they signify certain aspects of the modernist hope of those Vietnamese who came to worship them as saints of the new faith. Together in one mural, this chapter will reveal how these figures additionally symbolise a very specific global, modernist, and millenarian hope.


David W. Kim


The Korean peninsula of Northeast Asia was not well known to the powers and authorities of Western countries in the nineteenth century, for the royal family and their government of the Chosŏn dynasty (empire of Korea) had maintained an anti-western policy. The national policy did not last a long time; rather the western civilization of advanced science, technology, literature, and culture flowed into this oriental society, where there was a strong influence of Confucianism. Although Buddhist monks were in Korea, it was not the national religion. Instead, various activities of shamanism were performed in the life and culture of the Korean people. Christianity was a new religion to the local people in the nineteenth century. Then, how did the historical development of the Western religion take place in Korea? Was it part of the nineteenth century colonialism? Which country had the greatest effect on the early Korean Protestant movement? How did the Korean scripture (Sǒnggyo) emerge and affect the widespread use of Han’gŭl language in the society? This paper not only demonstrates the unique impact of a Scottish man over the early history of Korean Christianity and the development of Korean literature in 1870s-1890s, but also argues that the Korean diaspora in Manchuria under the principle of the ‘fulfilment theology’ performed as the vessel of John Ross for the modernization of the Hermit Kingdom.

Amy A. Slagle

be love. In the other religions there was a certain leader. Confucius had things to say that he thought were good for society and Confucianism followed that and Lao-tzu had certain teachings people should follow, but I didn’t really see sacrificial love. … And when I looked at Christ and looked at


are only able to point out that areas dominated by Protestantism, Confucianism, Juda- ism or Catholicism (as much as areas inhabited by "Whites" and "Yellows") more often enjoy relatively good economic results. These researchers cannot, however, explain the nature of the cause-effect relationship that

Race against Revolution in Central and Eastern Europe

From Hegel to Weber, from Rural Insurgency to “Polonization”

Andrew Zimmerman

religion to draw conclusions about, as he put it, “physical and mental race differences.” In his Sociology of Religion , however, religion represented the ideas of the “bearers of civilization [ Kulturträger ].” His comparative study of the economic ethics of Protestantism, Confucianism, Hinduism, and

Mikhail Karpov

cultural a n d ethical f a c t o r played a role in this. Traditional political culture, d e r i v e d mainly f r o m Confucianism, d e m a n d e d f r o m intellectuals e i t h e r sincere c o - o p e r a t i o n o r at least c o m p l i a n c e w i t h rulers w h o m t h e y c o n s i d e r e d to be

Davies, Daniel M.

-1876) and Protestant (1876-1940), and Davies finds the impact on political and social life of Protestantism the greater. Christians generally held Shamanism, Buddhism, and Confucianism responsible for Korea...