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Democratising Development

The Politics of Socio-Economic Rights in South Africa

Series:

Edited by Peris Jones and Kristian Stokke

What are the prospects and means of achieving development through a democratic politics of socio-economic rights? Starting from the position that socio-economic rights are as legally and normatively valid as civil and political rights, this anthology explores the politics of acquiring and transforming socio-economic rights in South Africa. The book brings together an interdisciplinary group of leading scholars in an examination of the multifaceted politics of social and economic policy-making, rights-based political struggles and socio-economic rights litigations. The post-apartheid South African experience shows that there is no guarantee that democracy will eliminate poverty or reduce social inequality, but also that democratic institutions and politics may provide important means for asserting interests and rights in regard to development. Thus it is argued that democratic politics of socio-economic rights may democratise development while also developing democracy.

The State of Democracy

Democracy Assessments in Eight Nations Around the World

Edited by David Beetham, Iain Kearton, Nalini Vittal, Sarah Bracking and Stuart Weir

The State of Democracy: Democracy Assessments in Eight Nations Around the World is the robust and sensitive study of democratisation in eight very different countries at varying stages of democratisation – Bangladesh, El Salvador, Italy, Kenya, Malawi, New Zealand,
Peru and South Korea. This unique comparative study first presents the findings of in-country teams of experts in the eight countries on the state of democracy in their own country; and concludes with an analysis and synthesis of their findings to suggest an overall general trajectory of the democratisation process. In doing so, the conclusions examine a variety of issues of significance to democracy, including for example the creation of electoral space, the formation of political parties, the political inclusion of minorities, mechanisms of accountability, and the reduction of corruption.
The strength of The State of Democracy lies in the common use by the eight teams of the
same democracy assessment framework developed under the auspices of the
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), Stockholm. This innovative assessment framework covers every aspect of democracy: citizen rights and the rule of law, representative and accountable government, civil society and popular participation, and the international dimensions of democracy. The
expert teams used the same methodology to answer the same questions: how democratic
are we? In what respects have we made progress? What are the major defects of our
governing arrangements from a democratic point of view? How do we stand in comparison with our past and with other comparator countries?
Thus their findings are both comprehensive and directly comparable. The State of Democracy contains summaries of each democracy assessment; presents detailed comparative data on key democratic indicators for the eight countries; and then concludes with an overall analysis. The eight studies were pilot schemes, funded and organised by International IDEA, to validate and test the democracy assessment
framework, set out in the companion volume, The International IDEA Handbook on
Democracy Assessment
, also published by Brill. Some studies are also
being published separately in their country of origin as promotional tools for democratic
reform. International IDEA is continuing to cumulate these comparative studies and
analysis of democratic trends around the world, see www.idea.int.

Yannick du Pont

Democratisation through supporting civil society in Bosnia and Herzegovina Yannick du Pont 'What else are we doing but political engineering? We cannot avoid it1, Mr. Herbert Salber, member of the German delegation to the OSCE in Vienna. Introduction This article will discuss OSCE

The International Ombudsman Anthology

Selected Writings from the International Ombudsman Institute

Edited by Linda C. Reif

This anthology brings together a selection of writings by ombudsman experts that explore various aspects of the contemporary public sector ombudsman. Originally published in International Ombudsman Institute publications, these articles illustrate the diversity of ombudsman offices around the world and underscore the elements and issues that are important to all ombudsman institutions. From its Scandinavian roots, the ombudsman model has been established worldwide and at all levels of government as a mechanism to monitor and improve government administration. The model has seen renewed interest in the past decade in democratizing countries which are reforming their governmental institutions, such as in Latin America, Central and East Europe, Africa and the Asia Pacific region.
This anthology explores the essential elements of the public sector ombudsman and the emerging mandates of the ombudsman institution both in established and consolidating democracies. In particular, the role of the ombudsman in human rights protection is scrutinized from a variety of perspectives. The anthology also includes critical analyses of the extent of the jurisdiction of the public sector ombudsman, focusing on matters such as the relationship of the ombudsman with administrative tribunals and the courts. Issues surrounding the ombudsman process of investigation, recommendation and reporting are highlighted - such as administrative fairness in the ombudsman process, special investigations, public education about the office and media relations.

Iain Kearton, Sarah Bracking, Stuart Weir and David Beetham

The International IDEA Handbook on Democracy Assessment is a robust and sensitive guide to assessing the quality of democracy and human rights in any country around the world. The Handbook introduces an easy-to-use and universal methodology for assessing the condition of democracy in any country, or its progress in democratisation, that has been developed in a three-year action programme at IDEA, the inter-governmental Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance in Sweden.
The Handbook provides a means to measure systematically the full range of values, institutions and issues relating to modern democracy that is sensitive to the underlying principles and democracy and the differences between democracies themselves. It is therefore both universal in application and capable of responding to particular aspects of any one nation's democratic arrangements. The animating principle of the Handbook is that only citizens of a nation themselves are qualified to assess the quality of their own democratic arrangements. Thus, it provides a self-help guide, which gives academics, lawyers, political practitioners, journalists and interested citizens the tools to assess the state of their democracy, or any key aspects of their democracy.
The Handbook is above all a practical working document that draws on the actual experience of assessing democracy in different countries, comparative knowledge and research, and democratic principles and practice. It gives a step-by-step guide to the purposes and methods of democracy assessment; who to involve; how to use the research tools; how to validate the findings; what standards of practice to adopt; and how to present and publicise a finished assessment. It contains extracts from completed assessments, guidance on the use of qualitative and quantitative data, examples of codes of democratic practice and international and regional standards, and a vast list of accessible data sources.
The methodology was created by a team of political scientists assembled from all regions of the world by International IDEA and has been tried and tested in a variety of countries, including Bangladesh, El Salvador, Italy, Kenya, Malawi, New Zealand, Peru, South Korea and the United Kingdom. International organisations like the World Bank and UNECA are adapting it for in-country use. The four main authors and editors have been directly involved from the inception of the project - in developing and refining the methodology and participating in and advising on the nine country studies that form the essential practical core of experience on which this invaluable Handbook is based.

Edited by David Beetham, Sarah Bracking, Iain Kearton and Stuart Weir

The International IDEA Handbook on Democracy Assessment is a robust and sensitive guide to assessing the quality of democracy and human rights in any country around the world. The Handbook introduces an easy-to-use and universal methodology for assessing the condition of democracy in any country, or its progress in democratisation, that has been developed in a three-year action programme at IDEA, the inter-governmental Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance in Sweden.
The Handbook provides a means to measure systematically the full range of values, institutions and issues relating to modern democracy that is sensitive to the underlying principles and democracy and the differences between democracies themselves. It is therefore both universal in application and capable of responding to particular aspects of any one nation's democratic arrangements. The animating principle of the Handbook is that only citizens of a nation themselves are qualified to assess the quality of their own democratic arrangements. Thus, it provides a self-help guide, which gives academics, lawyers, political practitioners, journalists and interested citizens the tools to assess the state of their democracy, or any key aspects of their democracy.
The Handbook is above all a practical working document that draws on the actual experience of assessing democracy in different countries, comparative knowledge and research, and democratic principles and practice. It gives a step-by-step guide to the purposes and methods of democracy assessment; who to involve; how to use the research tools; how to validate the findings; what standards of practice to adopt; and how to present and publicise a finished assessment. It contains extracts from completed assessments, guidance on the use of qualitative and quantitative data, examples of codes of democratic practice and international and regional standards, and a vast list of accessible data sources.
The methodology was created by a team of political scientists assembled from all regions of the world by International IDEA and has been tried and tested in a variety of countries, including Bangladesh, El Salvador, Italy, Kenya, Malawi, New Zealand, Peru, South Korea and the United Kingdom. International organisations like the World Bank and UNECA are adapting it for in-country use. The four main authors and editors have been directly involved from the inception of the project - in developing and refining the methodology and participating in and advising on the nine country studies that form the essential practical core of experience on which this invaluable Handbook is based.

Thomas Jandl

Environmental activism and democratization in Russia Thomas Jandl Analyzing Russia's official attempt to crack down on environmental organizations, the one question that is rarely asked and so far remains unanswered is 'why?' What started in October 1995 with a search of Bellona's s St

Series:

Edited by Hugo Stokke and Arne Tostensen

The eleventh in the series of yearbooks on Human Rights in Developing Countries, this volume marks a departure from previous editions and a new beginning. The Yearbook will now bear the title of Human Rights in Development, to reflect the fact that it will explore the role of human rights as an integral part of the development process. The new title is also an indication of the fact that the scope of the Yearbook has widened to include human rights topics and issues in the more developed parts of the world as well as in the developing countries covered hitherto. Moreover, human rights are themselves in development and the new Yearbook plans to keep track of standard-setting in the human rights field. Finally, the new title reflects the Yearbook's aim of engaging in more international and comparative studies on the one hand and in more focused local issues on the other. With the rapid spread of new information technology and improved local monitoring capacity in developing countries, there may be less of a need for the type of nation-level country studies the Yearbook performed in the past.
Two themes cut across the series of articles contained in the current edition. One, human rights promotion, is explored in various ways; one article looks at the establishment of national human rights institutions as instruments of promotion; another analyses development interventions in terms of their impact on local populations, drawing on UN and World Bank experience; yet another argues the case for using aid in human rights promotion, exemplified by Dutch aid to Guatemala; a fourth investigates the policies of the EU and ASEAN in seeking to improve the human rights situation in Burma; and finally one article looks at the work of the ILO in standard-setting and implementation in the field of child labour. The other theme, local conflict, is addressed in two articles, one looking at local communities in Latin America caught between local customs and ideologically charged civil wars and the other investigating the tensions between centralized rule and local autonomy in Kenya, recently erupting into ethnic violence.
The Human Rights in Development Yearbook is a joint project of the Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen; the Danish Centre for Human Rights, Copenhagen; the Icelandic Human Rights Centre, Reykjavik; the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna; the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, Utrecht; the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, Oslo; and the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Lund.

Series:

Manfred Nowak

Human rights are the only universally recognized system of contemporary values which, during the last 50 years, has been gradually developed and defined by all States in a comprehensive international legal framework. The international human rights regime is closely related to international peace and security, development and a global trend towards pluralist democracy, good governance and the rule of law. International humanitarian and criminal law can today be considered as specific aspects of international human rights law, which after the end of the Cold War has become increasingly complex and difficult to oversee. The present textbook attempts to provide a first and at the same time comprehensive introduction into the idea and significance of human rights, its philosophical and theoretical foundations, historical development, the main structures and procedures of international human rights protection by the United Nations and regional organizations (Council of Europe, Organization of American States, African Union, OSCE and others), and modern trends, such as preventive mechanisms, international criminal law, human rights as essential elements of peace-keeping and peace-building operations, humanitarian intervention or the relationship between human rights and terrorism. The book perceives human rights as an inter-disciplinary topic and illustrates the theory of human rights with a considerable number of practical case-studies, graphics, statistics, procedural charts and textboxes. It serves as a textbook for students of law, political science, international relations and other academic fields related to human rights, but may as well be used as a first introduction for those working in the field, for NGO activists, legal practitioners and others interested in the fascinating world of universal human rights.