The perception of Turkey as a model of attractive country in the region has started to change in the recent years. In the first decade of the JDP rule Turkey was seen as an emerging power with its strong economy, improving democracy and inspiring foreign policy. However, the developments since the Arab Uprisings in the neighbourhood, Gezi movement at home, end of the Kurdish peace process, as well as coup attempt and subsequent de-democratisation harmed the soft power of Turkey. This study argues that the JDP’s understanding of democracy and democratisation has been full of flaws from the very beginning of its rule. The Turkish example shows that countries can experience subsequent processes of de-democratisation and de-democratisation if governing parties did not endogenise the basic norms of democracy. Therefore, it is argued that the reverse wave of de-democratisation characterises Turkey more than the “selective” processes of democratisation. It is also argued that JDP elite via its discourse has been constructing the West as the ‘Other’.
principles of the 1908 Revolution. Such popular imagery was reflected in trinket-like medals, postcards, posters, and postage stamps, thus rendering his image, “in a very modernized and somewhat democratized fashion,” accessible to consumption by the masses.
Unlike the Turkish Republic that was to
. Firstly, that the early Republican press needs to be understood within the framework of the “democratisation” discussion, Şerif Demir, for example, arguing that a close examination of Turkish press-government relations provides “a short history of democracy in Turkey”.
Alpay Kabacalı, like most
of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death.
Nathalie Clayer, “Saints and Sufis in Post-Communist Albania,” in Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World , ed. Kisaichi
style was dismissed as the linguistic expression of a youth who has insufficient command of standard Arabic ( fuṣḥà ), and who takes chance of the democratization allowed by the media, and the lack of gatekeepers, to get their work published.
Until now, the adīb is expected to write in a high
are being situated on both sides within religious or cultural parameters. e EU failed in opposing the American agenda with an alternative one. Does globalization bring democratization into the Arab world, asks Eberhard Kienle (60-75) and discusses three possible patterns of relations between the
démocratisation. tant dans les pays en voie de développement que jusqu'A un certain point pour les Universit6s partout dans le monde, oil règnent à des degr6s divers des maux apparemment in6vitables: baisse de niveau, spécialisation pr6matur6c et désillusions devant la fermeture des débouchés. De fait, l
to answer the frequently asked question, when do Islamist parties embrace liberal democracy and when do they fail to do so? His material on Turkey, Egypt, and Morocco seems to have been collected in 2008/09; his arguments concern the period roughly until 2013. Thus, especially the ongoing de-democratization