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Laura Hollsten

compared to the daytime—more equal and, for some, less threatening, at least in seasons when night work was not required. This article studies the temporal and spatial regimes on early modern Caribbean sugar plantations, with a particular focus on night time. 3 It examines the ways in which slaves

Leslie Tuttle and Plane, Ann Marie

Bibliographic entry in Chapter 2: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries and the American Revolution | Atlantic World editorsPlane, Ann Marie and Leslie TuttleimprintPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.annotationThis volume collects essays on dreams and visions in the early

Quentin Buvelot

Benjamin Schmidt, Inventing Exoticism: Geography, Globalism, and Europe’s Early Modern World . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. xix + 412 pp. (Cloth US$ 85.00) Inventing Exoticism: Geography, Globalism, and Europe’s Early Modern World shows us that “alternative truths” are

Larry Gragg

Michael Guasco, Slaves and Englishmen: Human Bondage in the Early Modern Atlantic World . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. 327 pp. (Cloth US $ 45.00) Much ink has been spilled in the quest to understand the origins of slavery in the English colonies of the Americas

Thomas Lockley

Lúcio de Sousa, The Portuguese Slave Trade in Early Modern Japan: Merchants, Jesuits and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Slaves , Leiden and Boston, Brill, 2018, 594 pp., US $ 217.00 (hardback), ISBN 978-90-04-36580-3. The institution of slavery and the trade in human beings has a deep history in

Translating Catechisms, Translating Cultures

The Expansion of Catholicism in the Early Modern World

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Edited by Antje Flüchter and Rouven Wirbser

Translating Catechisms, Translating Cultures explores the dimensions of early modern transcultural Christianities; the leeway of religious negotiation in and outside of Europe by comparing catechisms and their translation in the context of several Jesuit missionary strategies. The volume challenges the often assumed paramount Europeanness of Western Christianity. In the early modern period the idea of Tridentine Catholicism was translated into many different regions where it was appropriated and adopted to local conditions. Missionary work always entails translation, linguistic as well as cultural, which results in a modification of the content. Catechisms were central instruments to communicate Christian belief and, therefore, they are central media for all kinds of translation processes. The comparative approach (including China, India, Japan, Ethiopia, Northern America and England) enables the evaluation of different factors like power relations, social differentiation, cultural patterns, gender roles etc.

Contributors are: Takao Abé, Anand Amaladass, Leonhard Cohen, Renate Dürr, Antje Flüchter, Ana Hosne, Giulia Nardini, John Ødemark, John Steckley, Alexandra Walsham, Rouven Wirbser.

Marjoleine Kars

In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

Kris Lane

Looks at how Western law was interpreted and applied to perceived cannibals and corsairs in the Spanish Caribbean in the 16th and 17th c., by Spanish jurists in the period, and at the development of the cannibal and corsair image in Spanish culture. Author outlines the convergence of terms suggesting a growing semantic linkage between certain indigenous peoples, specially the famed "Carib cannibals", and foreign, mostly Western European, corsairs poaching on Spanish wealth. He describes how of the Caribs, said to be cannibals, involved in piracy, an image was constructed of not only cannibals, but also greedy criminals, or rebelers against Catholicism, in order to (legally) justify punishments or wars against them, and thus Spanish rule. He then discusses how of French, British, and other corsairs in the Caribbean involved in piracy against the Spanish, an in some ways similar image was painted of fanatical canine types ruled by appetites, and also of anti-Catholic heretics and criminals, in order to justify punishments as well as the Spanish claim on rule of the Caribbean.

Modernization and the Crisis of Memory

John Donne to Don DeLillo

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Philipp Wolf

Contemporary studies of memory focus either on the psychology of remembering, on its archives and media, or on the traditional ars memoriae. The general cultural framework with its social and material factors is largely neglected, despite the obvious impact on both collective and individual mnemonic mentality. But, as in the first half of the seventeenth century or the later twentieth century, the literary and political invocation of religious, collective or national memory occurs most of all in times of historical rupture, and attendant changes of a radical technological and cultural nature. Appeals to the power of memory are not only indicative of the anxiety about the loss of its binding or absolving character. They are already symptomatic of a deep crisis of cultural memory in itself, resulting from an erosion of firm spatial, temporal and historical references along with an increasing tendency towards reflexivity, which calls the apparently self-evident facts of past and present into question. The continuity of remembering, however, as this study argues, presupposes the permanence and recurrence of social and material relations, of representative or symbolic persons, objects and events, in which it can inscribe itself. But owing to the shift in historical consciousness from (typological) past to progressive future and novelty and under the impress of industrial production and modern media (mobility and communications), the Western subject has to cope constantly with new empirical situations, symbolic values and historical or current information whose origin and evolution – indeed, the very memory of them – remain alien to personal identity and memory. The promise of redemption and salvation, still inherent in seventeenth-century collective memory, loses credibility.
The study includes a wide range of authors from Donne to Pope, Tennyson to George Eliot and Walter Pater, W.B. Yeats to Don DeLillo and covers the whole period from early modern England to postmodernism. It can thus also be read as a brief history of Western memory and its continuing crises.