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Unimpeded Sailing

A Critical Edition of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio Libera (Extended 1698 Edition)

Series:

Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

The original Latin text of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio libera has never before been translated into any modern vernacular language. Gröning’s intention was to set out the position of neutral nations (in this case the Danes and Swedes), and their right to pursue trade during the wars of the great maritime powers (particularly the English and the Dutch). It specifically sought to engage with and refute the work of Hugo Grotius while taking cognisance of the critique of Gröning’s work by Samuel Pufendorf. The text serves as a bridge between 17th-century polemical discourse surrounding the ‘free sea’ versus ‘enclosed sea’ debate and later 18th-century legal literature on the rights of neutrals and the continuation of free trade in time of war.

Series:

Leos Müller and Steve Murdoch

clearly from the early modern practices of neutral shipping and trade, not least Dutch shipping. But Grotius also argued for the rights of free trade and navigation. Obviously there was a discrepancy between his arguments regarding the duties of neutrals, including impartiality in conflict and thus