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Jan N. Bremmer

that epigraphy as a discipline is that old, even though some medieval travelers, such as the famous fifteenth-century merchant Cyriacus of Ancona (ca. 1391–1455), already collected many Greek inscriptions, as did several early modern merchants and consuls in the Ottoman Empire after him. Greek

Amir Ahmadi

the Western reception of Zoroaster the hostile contrast drawn by the Christian writers of the early modern period. According to C. Herrenschmidt (1987) the decisive date in the history of the reception is that of the publication of De Religione Persarum in 1700: ‘Once and for all Europeans had the

Paul Dundas

(),  points to the absence of a set of life-cycle rituals distinctive to Sikhism prior to reforms initiated in the eighteenth century as stemming from the fluidity of Sikh identity which in the early modern period was grounded on a variety of local, regional, religious and secular identities. While a ‘multiple