in the use of particular fauna. Thirdly, the corpus of crosses in Egypt is prolific, varied and, in part, unique, in relation to other early adopters of Christianity, including areas in relative proximity in the Middle East, Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Cultural elements are reflected in the
, states appeared in the East-African Saharan-Sahelian region that provide a fascinating glimpse into alternative paths of state formation and socio-economic organization. The discoveries in Nubia reveal that, far from common assumptions about backward Nubians forced to emulate Egypt in order to build
Cartmill, “The Status of the Race Concept in Physical Anthropology,” 653.
49 The authors emphasize how these characteristics are found only in “extreme” variants of Negroids (Sudaniden, Paleonegriden of West Africa) and can be used only as help for identifying Negroids of north-eastAfrica, Winkler und
Transformations in North-EastAfrica, c. 10,000 to 2,650 BC.
Cambridge University Press
What makes civilization? The ancient Near East and the future of the West
Oxford University Press