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Author: Andrea Montella

customs. As Mortimer Wheeler on August 22, 1955, stated, “The history of Oriental Africa was written by Chinese celadon”. 7 The East African Coast and Swahili Culture The East African Coast, also known as the Swahili Coast, stretches over 2,500 kilometres from Somalia to Mozambique, and from the

In: Ming Qing Yanjiu
Author: Suzannah Linton

The prevailing narrative instructs us that humane treatment of captured enemy fighters is down to white knights from the western parts of the European continent with their codes of chivalry, or alternatively, the Swiss businessman Henri Dunant. This contribution challenges that narrative for overlooking, or being ignorant of, the way that societies around the world have approached the matter of the captured enemy fighter. Traces of some of the critical principles about humane treatment that we see in our present law can actually be found in much older societies from outside of Europe. A more accurate and representative way of understanding humanitarianism in the treatment of captured enemy fighters can and must be crafted, with the prevailing Euro-centric account balanced with practices, cultures and faiths from elsewhere. The quest to achieve more humane treatment in armed conflict is first and foremost a battle of the intellect. Narratives and conceptualisations that are more inclusive, recognising and appreciating of the ways of the rest of the world are likely to be more effective in communicating humanitarian ideals. This work adopts a new method of approaching the richness and diversity of the treatment of captured enemy fighters over time and space. This new framework of analysis uses six cross-cutting themes to facilitate a broader international and comparative perspective, and develop a more sophisticated level of understanding. The first theme is how older and indigenous societies approached the matter of captured enemy fighters. The second focuses on religions of the world, and what they teach or require. The third section examines the matter of martial practices and codes of ethics for combatants in certain societies. The fourth category engages with colonisation and decolonisation, and regulation (or non-regulation) of the treatment of captives of war. Fifth is the issue of modernisation and the impact it has had on armed forces and fighters, including on the treatment of captives. The final issue is the shift towards formalised agreements, beginning with the first bilateral agreements and then the multilateral codification exercise that began in the mid-19th century and continues to this day. This framework for analysis leads into a final chapter, presenting a fresh and holistic view on the evolution of prisoner of war protections in the international order. It provides a different way of looking at International Humanitarian Law, starting with this effort at a global understanding of the treatment of captured enemy fighters.

In: Frontiers of Law in China

Africa, and draws the conclusion that seventy years before Zheng He’s voyages and more than a century and a half before da Gama’s ventures to India, Chinese private traders were already active in East Africa. In reality Wang Dayuan boarded non-Chinese Asian traders’ vessels. Even if he really visited

In: T'oung Pao

.-Petersbourg. ' ' ".: . . ;: . , ..:;. t .. - .... ' . , .. ,. ... Nous avons requ de M. le Prof. HIRTH une sgrie de memoires sur lesquels nous aurons sans doute 1'occasion de revenir: The .My8tery of Fulin, Mr. Kingsmill and tlae Hiung-nu, .Early Chinese ' .notice8 of East Africa?a Territories, réimprimées du Vol. XXX, Part .1, 1909 du

In: T'oung Pao

East Africa in the years 1405 to 1433. "But regarding their visits to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea one should remember that these were not new in the + 15th century, indeed that Chinese ships had already been frequenting those waters for a thousand years-what was quite new was the appearance of

In: T'oung Pao

economy (sched- uling migrations, securing pastures, protecting livestock, etc.). East African nomads have no formal political institutions at all but rely on age sets and segmentary lineages to bring people together as problems arise. The size of the problem determines the size of a group: cattle thefts

In: T'oung Pao

tightly controlled form of fraternal succession (Goody 1966: 18-20, 49. This Goody volume also contains an essay by Martin Southwold that treats similar types of alterations in the succession pattern of the East African kingdom of Buganda. See Goody 1966: 99-122). Comparative Successions On the following

In: T'oung Pao
Author: W.W. Rockhill

-na-li unidentified; in East-Africa (?). 75. Kia-chiang-men-li (1m M)' unidentified. 76. Po-ssii-li Persia. 77. Ta-chi-na (t4 tf unidentified; noted for gardenia flowers. 78. Chien-li-rua unidentified ; possibly near N° 59. 56 (1). 79. "The Great Buddha Mountain" (fl fi Dondera Head. 67 (1). 80. Hsu-wen-na Mangalore

In: T'oung Pao
Author: Berthold Laufer

. 321-327) FERRAND admits that Wâllwäq may be identified also with Java-Sumatra. In his admirable work Texles relatifs iz L'Lxtrezne-Orie?at (Vol. I, p. iv), he adds to these possibilities also East Africa. While not contesting the ingenuity of Ferrand's theory, it is not convincing in all parts (it is

In: T'oung Pao

'au milieu du IXe siecle. C'est un passage du Yeou-yang-tsa-tsou de Touan Tch'eng-che (mort en 863) qui a ete mis en valeur par Hirth ("Eayly Chinese notices of East African territories", dans J. of f the Amer. Oy. Soc., vol. XXX, Part I, 1909). Ce passage d6crit (de se- conde main) une contr6e de Po

In: T'oung Pao