In the period c. 1880-1940, organized Sufism spread rapidly in the western Indian Ocean. New communities turned to Islam, and Muslim communities turned to new texts, practices and religious leaders. On the East African coast, the orders were both a vehicle for conversion to Islam and for reform of Islamic practice. The impact of Sufism on local communities is here traced geographically as a ripple reaching beyond the Swahili cultural zone southwards to Mozambique, Madagascar and Cape Town. Through an investigation of the texts, ritual practices and scholarly networks that went alongside Sufi expansion, this book places religious change in the western Indian Ocean within the wider framework of Islamic reform.
This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Red Sea VII conference titled “The Red Sea and the Gulf: Two Maritime Alternative Routes in the Development of Global Economy, from Late Prehistory to Modern Times”. The Red Sea and the Gulf are similar geographically and environmentally, and complementary to each other, as well as being competitors in their economic and cultural interactions with the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. The chapters of the volume are grouped in three sections, corresponding to the various historical periods. Each chapter of the book offers the reader the opportunity to travel across the regions of the Red Sea and the Gulf, and from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean from prehistory to the contemporary era.
With contributions by Ahmed Hussein Abdelrahman, Serena Autiero, Mahmoud S. Bashir, Kathryn A. Bard, Alemsege, Beldados, Ioana A. Dumitru, Serena Esposito, Rodolfo Fattovich, Luigi Gallo, Michal Gawlikowski, Caterina Giostra, Sunil Gupta, Michael Harrower, Martin Hense, Linda Huli, Sarah Japp, Serena Massa, Ralph K. Pedersen, Jacke S. Phillips, Patrice Pomey, Joanna K. Rądkowska, Mike Schnelle, Lucy Semaan, Steven E. Sidebotham, Shadia Taha, Husna Taha Elatta, Joanna Then-Obłuska and Iwona Zych
by the late twelfth or thirteenth century, had by now replaced Massawa as Ethiopia’s principal port, and helped to make Ethiopia one of the major EastAfrican sources for exported enslaved people in the later Middle Ages. 98 Some of the enslaved were Christians. Although Muslim tradition held that
. D. Goitein, “From the Mediterranean to India: Documents on the Trade to India, South Arabia, and EastAfrica from the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries,” Speculum 29, 2 (1954): 181–197, at 195; see also idem, Studies in Islamic History and Institutions (Leiden, 2009), 333. 19 Schneider, Stèles
: Craftsmen in the Borderland,” in Changing Identifications and Alliances in North-EastAfrica , vol. 1, Ethiopia and Kenya , ed. Gunther Schlee and E. Watson (New York, 2013), 113–31. See also Judith Todd, “Iron production among the Dimi of Ethiopia,” in African Iron-Working , ed. R. Haaland and P. L