discussing their photographic collections (please see Table 1). These individuals were part of the South Asian diaspora to EastAfrica whose ancestors travelled from India via the Indian Ocean trade routes, and for the most part from the nineteenth century onward.
First-hand accounts from
Shakespeare into his native Tswana language. 3 Plaatje has been extensively studied but he is just one of a generation of black African men of letters. Anglophone West and EastAfrica—just to stick to the Anglo sphere of colonial rule and education—also have its mission-school educated elites whose work is
developed new interpretations of jihād , which included physical labor (Glover, 54).
Ṣūfī brotherhoods were also prominent in anti-colonial movements in EastAfrica, but such brotherhoods were not quite as widespread there as they were (and are) in West Africa. In Somalia, the figure of Muḥammad
, there are several aspects of Ṣūfī endowments that remain unexplored. One such area is the patronage of relics rather than saints for economic and political ends, or what McChesney has described as “reliquary Sufism” (McChesney, Reliquary). A study of Ṣūfī endowments in EastAfrica remains to be
schools. The families of shaykh s benefited from a new system, co-opted by the Ottomans, that allowed them to acquire the most lucrative agricultural lands (Walker). Facing the rising influence of Wahhābī groups, as in eastAfrica at the beginning of the twentieth century, Ṣūfī orders were particularly