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Fernando Diez-Martín, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Policarpo Sánchez, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Antonio Tarriño, Rebeca Barba, Mary E. Prendergast and Luis de Luque

Recent re-excavation of Mumba Rockshelter unearthed an unbiased lithic sample from Bed V. Technological analysis has permitted a reinterpretation of the so-called Mumba Industry, a transitional industry between Middle and Later Stone Ages originally defined by Mehlman (1989). Our data confirm Mehlman’s observation that the “evolutionary” markers in Mumba Bed V are basically typological. However, our study differs from his in that we classify all of Bed V as LSA based on the combined analyses of typology and technology in our excavated assemblage. From a technological perspective, no changes have been observed throughout the sequence, and continuity is the main technological characteristic of the series. The only transitional marker from Lower through Upper Bed V is the appearance of the geometric crescent in the latter, taking into account that microliths exist throughout the sequence. This evidence casts some doubts on previous interpretations and underscores the need to recover a larger sample using modern excavation techniques. It also stresses the need to define the MSA/LSA transition in better terms, combining techno-typological criteria.

Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Fernando Díez-Martín, Audax Mabulla, Luis Luque, Luis Alcalá, Antonio Tarriño, José Antonio López-Sáez, Rebeca Barba and Pastory Bushozi

Ongoing archaeological research at North Lake Eyasi has produced a wealth of information, including a new hominid fossil and several archaeological sites dating to the end of the Middle Pleistocene. One of the sites (WB9) has been excavated and has produced evidence of multiple processes in its formation, including evidence of functional associations of stone tools and faunal remains which are scarce for this time period. The stone tool industry is based on a core and flake industry, which is not very diagnostic and attributed to MSA. Earlier heavy-duty tools classified as Sangoan may derive from the underlying Eyasi Beds. The stratigraphic provenience of previous fossil hominids is unknown. Surface collections from the Eyasi lake, thus, comprise two different sets of stone tools and fossils, which can only be clearly differentiated in the field. This advises against the use of previously curated collections as a homogeneous sample. Earlier definitions of the Njarasa industry should be revised. This work presents results on the paleoecology of the area and of its paleontological and archaeological information, with special reference to the excavation of WB9, the most complete site discovered in the area so far. This contributes to the limited information available about site functionality and hominid subsistential behaviour in East Africa during the end of the Middle Pleistocene. A technological study from WB9 also shows the variability of stone tool traditions at this time.

Mary E. Prendergast, Luis Luque, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Fernando Diez-Martín, Audax Z.P. Mabulla and Rebeca Barba

Mumba Rockshelter in northern Tanzania presents one of the richest and most complete archaeological sequences in East Africa for the Middle Stone Age through the Iron Age. Past excavations of the shelter revealed an extremely rich lithic and faunal assemblage, but were problematic, either because of poor excavation and recording methods (in the 1930s), or because the materials were never fully studied (in the 1979/1981 excavations). In both cases, excavators had concluded that the shelter contained a deposit without visible separation between archaeological levels. Re-excavation of Mumba, using modern techniques for recording spatial data, show that the previous geological and archaeological sub-divisions of the shelter deposits need much revision. The results of the excavation have implications for the interpretation of the “transitional” Mumba Industry in the Pleistocene levels and for the co-occurrence of ceramic traditions in the Holocene levels.

A.C. Christie and A. Haour

archaeological literature whereby the first cowries to arrive into West Africa were Monetaria moneta brought in from the Maldives while Monetaria annulus (Linneaus 1758) was brought from East Africa only from later periods, via European maritime trade routes. Monod (1969: 309) suggests that while East Africa


Gregory F. Barz

Performing Religion considers issues related to Tanzanian kwayas [KiSwahili, “choirs”], musical communities most often affiliated with Christian churches, and the music they make, known as nyimbo za kwaya [choir songs] or muziki wa kwaya [choir music]. The analytical approach adopted in this text focusing on the communities of kwaya is one frequently used in the fields of ethnomusicology, religious studies, culture studies, and philosophy for understanding diversified social processes-consciousness. By invoking consciousness an attempt is made to represent the ways seemingly disparate traditions coexist, thrive, and continue within contemporary kwaya performance.
An East African kwaya is a community that gathers several times each week to define its spirituality musically. Members of kwayas come together to sing, to pray, to support individual members in times of need, and to both learn and pass along new and inherited faith traditions. Kwayas negotiate between multiple musical traditions or just as often they reject an inherited musical system while others may continue to engage musical repertoires from both Europe and Africa. Contemporary kwayas comfortably coexist in the urban musical soundscape of coastal Dar es Salaam along with jazz dance bands, taarab ensembles, ngoma performance groups, Hindi film music, rap, reggae, and the constant influx of recorded American and European popular musics.
This ethnography calls into question terms frequently used to draw tight boundaries around the study of the arts in African expressive religious cultures. Such divisions of the arts present well-defended boundaries and borders that are not sufficient for understanding the change, adaptation, preservation, and integration that occur within a Tanzanian kwaya. Boundaries break down within the everyday performance of East African kwayas, such as Kwaya ya Upendo [“The Love Choir”] in Dar es Salaam, as repertoires, traditions, histories, and cultures interact within a performance of social identity.

Kathryn Ranhorn and Christian A. Tryon

program of direct dating at Nasera and compare these results with the recent comprehensive re-dating of Mumba rockshelter, where the proposed shared industries are present (Gliganic et al. 2012). We then compare the revised Nasera dates to other recently dated East African sequences outside of northern

Molebogeng Bodiba, Maryna Steyn, Paulette Bloomer, Morongwa N. Mosothwane, Frank Rühli and Abigail Bouwman

, east African/Eurasian admixture has been found among Khoe herders such as the Nama, from as far back as 1 500 ya, and this has been substantiated by archaeological data. This is apart from the evidence of recent admixture among the modern Khoe-San groups, of about 9% since the arrival of Bantu speakers

Enza Elena Spinapolice, Andrea Zerboni, Michael Meyer and Donatella Usai

African regions, Sudan is one where Palaeolithic research has been stagnating for a long time. Due to the paucity of in situ and radiometrically dated MSA contexts in this region, our discovery has the great potential of increase our knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens from East Africa to

Maria H. Schoeman, Byron Aub, John Burrows, Grant Hall and Stephan Woodborne

. , Schafer , P.A. , Majule , A. & Guiot , J. 2008 . Phytolith indices as proxies of grass subfamilies on East African tropical Mountains . Global and Planetary Change 61 ( 3-4 ), 209 - 224 . Burrows , J.E. & Burrows , S.M. 2003 . Buffelskloof Nature Reserve . Creda , Johannesburg

Hugo Pinto, Will Archer, David Witelson, Rae Regensberg, Stephanie Edwards Baker, Rethabile Mokhachane, Joseph Ralimpe, Nkosinathi Ndaba, Lisedi Mokhantso, Puseletso Lecheko and Sam Challis

implications for heated archaeological minerals . Journal of Field Archaeology 42 ( 4 ), 364 - 377 . Walker , R. 1985 . A Guide to Postcranial Bones of East African Mammals . Hylochoerus Press , Norwich . Witelson, D.M. and Guillemard, I. 2017. An overview of lithic material from MAF1 in the