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Edited by Christian D. de Fouloy

The European Strasbourg Register offers the reader a complete survey of all Strasbourg-based organizations with a European dimension. Strasbourg is not presented as a competitive site to Brussels, but rather as a city with a distinct focus and definite role to play in the construction of Europe. The geostrategic location of Strasbourg is of paramount importance in bridging Northern and Southern Europe, as well as in linking West and East. The presence in Strasbourg of such institutions as the European Parliament, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights, coupled with the outstanding education and research facilities the city offers, accounts for Strasbourg's popularity among the international business and academic community.
Part One of The European Strasbourg Register contains in-depth articles by a number of leading personalities; Part Two provides a comprehensive, practical and highly detailed review of Strasbourg-based organizations with a European dimension, including intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Parliament, as well as non-governmental organizations, education and training institutions, trans-border cooperation associations, permanent foreign representatives and accredited press agencies. Thus this volume constitutes a unique and indispensable tool for diplomats, journalists, lawyers, national and international civil servants, businessmen, lobbyists, researchers and all those interested in European institutions and public affairs.

Ellen Hey

International law governing the settlement of disputes through law-based forums, such as courts, tribunals and arbitral tribunals, is fraught with limitations that are becoming especially apparent with respect to disputes that involve the protection of the environment. However despite the deficiencies of the law, international courts and tribunals have issued judgements in disputes involving the protection of the environment. At the global level the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) have handed down decisions in relevant cases. In addition other legal forums can also be called upon to decide cases involving international environmental law. Such forums include the Environmental Chamber of the ICJ and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) under its general facilities and under the Environmental Facility that it is planning to establish. Similarly, special bodies, such as the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), may decide on cases. Moreover, regional forums such as the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Community (ECJ) have ruled on cases involving international environmental law.
Despite these developments, calls for the establishment of an international environmental court at the global level persist. Several arguments have been advanced to justify the establishment of an international environmental court, for example the very many pressing environmental problems that exist today and the need for a bench consisting of experts in international environmental law to consider these problems, the need for individuals and groups to have access to environmental justice at the international level, the need to enable international organizations to be parties to disputes related to the protection of the environment and the need for dispute settlement procedures that enable the common interest in the environment to be addressed. Arguments against the establishment of an international environmental court have been advanced as well. These arguments include the following: the proliferation of international courts and tribunals would result in the fragmentation of international law, existing courts and tribunals are, or can be, well equipped to consider cases involving environmental issues and disputes involving international environmental law also involve other aspects of international law.
This publication explores the arguments for and against the establishment of an international environmental court, examining topics such as the definition of an international environmental dispute and the concomitant expertise required on the bench, fragmentation and its root causes, access to justice and the representation of community interests.
The author argues that the establishment of an international environmental court is not the most desirable option and she suggests that it might be more fruitful if we consider developments in environmental law, as well as in other relevant areas of international law, from a different perspective, namely, that of administrative law and reassess the relationship between international and national law. Such an approach, she argues is warranted if, inter alia, viable means for resolving environmental disputes that may arise are to be identified.

Series:

Edited by Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

This volume of the Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights, prepared by the Directorate of Human Rights of the Council of Europe, relates to 2001. Its presentation follows that of previous volumes. Part one contains
basic texts and information of a general nature; part two deals with the European Commission of Human Rights; part three with the European Court
of Human Rights; part four with the Resolutions of the Committee of Ministers; and parts five and six with the other work of the Council of Europe
in the field of human rights, the situation in the Member States, and developments within the European Communities. A bibliography and index are included.

Edited by Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, Cesare Romano and Ruth Mackenzie

This book contains the thoughts of officials of international organizations and NGOs, member of judicial bodies, and academics on the role of international organizations and the settlement of contentious cases before international judicial bodies. The timely work will undoubtedly be of interest to practitioners and scholars who are involved in issues related to cases before international judicial bodies.



Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.