than “the Deputy ( nāʾib ) of the Imam.” 24 Al-Karakī’s main legal work, the Jāmiʿat al-maqāṣid , is a commentary on the ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī’s Qawāʿid al-aḥkām . It was written, so he tells us in a short preface, as a way to discharge some of his obligations towards the exalted, victorious, monarchical
definition of ‘human’ as ‘rational animal.’” McGinnis 2010, 43. On the external senses, with a particular emphasis on Avicenna’s optics and his rebuttal of the extramissive theory, see ibid., 100–111.
66 Jules Janssens (1986) has convincingly demonstrated that al-Ghazālī’s Maqāṣid al-falāsifa is a close