phonological representations can be substantially unstable at the onset of their creation, a condition not considered in previous installments of OptimalityTheory.
Let us now turn to the nature of the evaluation process. Given a single input, CON evaluates a set of output candidates along faithfulness and
English dialects. Fong (2017) claims for an OptimalityTheory explanation of already in Singlish, in which the possible uses of already in Singlish are matched with the possible uses in standard English, and the compatibilities noted: important is that the diphasic nature of the perfect aspect in
followed by three papers which examine the attested history of creoles and what it can tell us about substrate influence on these languages. Using OptimalityTheory Christian Uffmann (123-152) deals with the issue of paragogic vowels and the occasionally ensuing vowel harmony in Sranan, pointing out the
dealing with extension has led to construction of apparatus such as ‘reduction rules’ applied to relative product strings pioneered by Lounsbury (1964) , and more recently, suggestions that OptimalityTheory (another import from phonology, based on universal constraints) can be productively applied to
’—i.e., ‘it cannot happen’—rather than in the much more flexible “constraint” of the sort popularized by OptimalityTheory.) The structure of the paper is as follows. After reviewing a few of the critics’ most important criticisms (§2), I will set the stage for my own analysis in §3, by presenting a
employed in recent typological world on the syllable” (64). Whoever may want to explain this state of affairs by invoking decreolization should know that I have found no historical data in support of this hypothesis ( Mufwene 1994 ).
In the next chapter, Eric Russell Webb applies OptimalityTheory to
( eds.) 1994. Mixed languages: 15 case studies of language intertwining . Amsterdam: IFOTT. Bittner, Maria & Kenneth Hale. 1996. The Structural Determination of Case and Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 27:1-68. Bresnan, Joan. 2001. Pidgin genesis in OptimalityTheory. In M. Butt & T.H. King (eds.) LFG98
” (Thomason 2001b: 85).
58 Bernd Heine & Tania Kuteva Journal of language contact – THEMA 2 (2008) www. jlc-journal.org flexible “constrain t” of the sort popularized in OptimalityTheory”. But the no-linguistic-constraint hypothesis has not gone unchallenged. For example, Oksaar (1972:492) concludes that