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phonological representations can be substantially unstable at the onset of their creation, a condition not considered in previous installments of Optimality Theory. Let us now turn to the nature of the evaluation process. Given a single input, CON evaluates a set of output candidates along faithfulness and

In: Journal of Language Contact

English dialects. Fong (2017) claims for an Optimality Theory explanation of already in Singlish, in which the possible uses of already in Singlish are matched with the possible uses in standard English, and the compatibilities noted: important is that the diphasic nature of the perfect aspect in

In: Journal of Language Contact

followed by three papers which examine the attested history of creoles and what it can tell us about substrate influence on these languages. Using Optimality Theory Christian Uffmann (123-152) deals with the issue of paragogic vowels and the occasionally ensuing vowel harmony in Sranan, pointing out the

In: Journal of Language Contact

dealing with extension has led to construction of apparatus such as ‘reduction rules’ applied to relative product strings pioneered by Lounsbury (1964) , and more recently, suggestions that Optimality Theory (another import from phonology, based on universal constraints) can be productively applied to

In: Journal of Language Contact

’—i.e., ‘it cannot happen’—rather than in the much more flexible “constraint” of the sort popularized by Optimality Theory.) The structure of the paper is as follows. After reviewing a few of the critics’ most important criticisms (§2), I will set the stage for my own analysis in §3, by presenting a

In: Journal of Language Contact

employed in recent typological world on the syllable” (64). Whoever may want to explain this state of affairs by invoking decreolization should know that I have found no historical data in support of this hypothesis ( Mufwene 1994 ). In the next chapter, Eric Russell Webb applies Optimality Theory to

In: Journal of Language Contact

( eds.) 1994. Mixed languages: 15 case studies of language intertwining . Amsterdam: IFOTT. Bittner, Maria & Kenneth Hale. 1996. The Structural Determination of Case and Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 27:1-68. Bresnan, Joan. 2001. Pidgin genesis in Optimality Theory. In M. Butt & T.H. King (eds.) LFG98

In: Journal of Language Contact

” (Thomason 2001b: 85). 58 Bernd Heine & Tania Kuteva Journal of language contact – THEMA 2 (2008) www. jlc-journal.org flexible “constrain t” of the sort popularized in Optimality Theory”. But the no-linguistic-constraint hypothesis has not gone unchallenged. For example, Oksaar (1972:492) concludes that

In: Journal of Language Contact
In: Journal of Language Contact