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Author: Hang Zhang
Tones are the most challenging aspect of learning Chinese pronunciation for adult learners and traditional research mostly attributes tonal errors to interference from learners’ native languages. In Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones, Hang Zhang offers a series of cross-linguistic studies to argue that there are factors influencing tone acquisition that extend beyond the transfer of structures from learners’ first languages, and beyond characteristics extracted from Chinese. These factors include universal phonetic and phonological constraints as well as pedagogical issues. By examining non-native Chinese tone productions made by speakers of non-tonal languages (English, Japanese, and Korean), this book brings together theory and practice and uses the theoretical insights to provide concrete suggestions for teachers and learners of Chinese.
Author: Hang Zhang

Tonal Markedness Scale ( TMS ) (Cheng 1973; Ohala 1978; Hyman and VanBik 2004), and (2) the Obligatory Contour Principle ( OCP ) (Leben 1973; McCarthy 1986). These phonological constraints are phonetically grounded and formalized in the theoretical framework of Optimality Theory ( OT ) (Prince and

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones
Author: Hang Zhang

tones within the framework of Optimality Theory. I will argue that L2 tonal production is also constrained by these phonological universals. 2.2.3 Puzzle 3: T3 The third tone is consistently regarded as the most problematic tone for language learners in both perception and production tasks

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones
Author: Hang Zhang

, Chapters 4–6 use different working models to present research on various aspects of L2 acquisition of Mandarin tones. Chapter 5 presents quantitative research in which Optimality Theory ( OT , Prince and Smolensky 1993) serves to model the unconscious tonal knowledge that underlies L2 tonal productions

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones