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Robert Bast

Introduction Even among specialists of the German Reformation, the name of Augustin Bader is not well known. In his own time Bader spent most of his life in relative obscurity as a journeyman weaver in Augsburg, living barely above subsistence level though doubtless proud of his membership in

Michael Charney


This study of the initial collapse, revival, and finally a resumption of decline in the seventeenth century of the maritime kingdom of Arakan (in western Burma) attempts to establish a special place for Arakan in the general historiography of the seventeenth-century crisis in Southeast Asia. The unusual experience of Arakan in the seventeenth century was in large part due to both the blockades by autonomous Portuguese freebooters in the first two decades of the seventeenth century and the peculiar nature of a new trading relationship from the 1630s until the 1660s between the Arakanese and the Dutch, based on the Arakanese supply of slaves and rice to Dutch port-cities and plantations. The ebb and flow of Arakanese fortunes throughout the century were thus tied to the fortunes of the Dutch. Expanding Asian empires in Bengal and Burma also influenced the decline of the Arakanese maritime polity after the Dutch withdrew from Arakan in the 1660s. Afterwards, as the material resources of the Arakanese central court declined, the Arakanese littoral became politically fragmented, characterized and sustained by the rise of rival political centers and the rebellions of non-Arakanese ethnic groups who had been captured abroad and resettled in the Arakanese littoral. Arakan thus experienced its “own” crisis in the seventeenth century, a watershed that gives it a peculiar niche in the seventeenth-century history not only of Southeast Asia as a whole, but of the mainland in particular.

Claudia Brosseder

painted image contained “magical powers,” much as medieval European images were believed to do. My aim in this article is to show that the way Andean people came to conceptualize their saints was the result of three factors: a European intellectual Counter-Reformation discourse, which was repeated by

Ines G. Županov

Catholic Reformation and the Jesuits published a variety of texts in various languages on the topic. See for example, Les jésuites parmi les hommes aux XVI e et XVII e siècle (Clermont-Ferrand : Faculté des lettres et science humaine, 1987): 83-172. 10) For the Foucauldian concept of the technology

Matt Goldish

’ intensified exposure to Christian theology through the Hebraism born of the Reformation. More generally it means the breakup of the Catholic Church; increased intellectual contacts between Jews, Muslims and all varieties of Christians; the skeptical crisis; the disorienting effects of the voyages of discovery

Alexandra von Lieven

Destruktivität gerade der schweizerischen Reformation wird durch zahlreiche Zitate aus zeitgenössischen Berichten lebendig geschildert. Leider ist der Predigttext Bernardino Ochinos über Bilder und Reliquien im Anhang nur im Originaltext ohne Übersetzung abgedruckt. J. Wirth, Image et relique dans le

Sebastian Prange

pirates, Jewish intellectuals, and no less than three popes. It was directly a ff ected by such far- reaching events as the Iberian Reconquista , the Ottoman expansion across the Middle East, the dawn of the Reformation in Germany, and the sack of Rome. Most signi fi cantly, his life left behind an

Bryan K. Miller

lead to reformations of social and cultural institutions as well as re-formations of political systems, (Morris 2006 ) we must begin to consider “life histories” of empires that address changes in strategies of central, regional, and local elites through the course of changing social, economic, and

Mayte Green-Mercado

Politics in Reformation Germany.” As Bast shows, the myth of the Last World Emperor who would restore the Holy Roman Empire at the End Times—a cornerstone of Habsburg imperial ideology—was appropriated and subverted by commoners like Augustin Bader to present himself as a messianic king. Apocalyptic and

Masayuki Ueno

Meanwhile, the Reform Edict demanded the reformation of the administration of non-Muslim communities. Leading figures from the Orthodox Christian, Armenian, and Jewish communities responded by gathering around their religious authorities in Istanbul and formulating regulations for their community