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“Einen Newen Reformatorem

Die Reformationsschauspiele von Martin Rinckart und die Reformpoetik von Martin Opitz

Dirk Rose

1 Einführung Die fünfhundertjährige Wiederkehr der Reformation hat auch den Blick auf frühere Reformationsjubiläen geschärft. 1 Dabei führt das erste große Reformationsjubiläum, die Centenarfeiern im Jahr 1617, immer noch vergleichsweise ein Schattendasein. 2 Denn im Gegensatz zu den eher


The Poetic terrain vague of Roy Fisher’s A Furnace

André Otto

| has been expected but not imaged takes | for the minutes it occupies now.” The lack of image, of a pre-formed conception, makes the visitation possible and enables a re-formation of the knowledge of the world at the moment of perception. The world in its ontological status and the epistemology of


Francisco José Álvarez López

After the reformation of the old houses at Jarrow and Wearmouth, Bishop William of St Calais decided to bring some Benedictine monks from these sites to replace the secular community at Durham. He did so in 1083 and with them he sent a collection of more than forty books as a gift to the new community. A list of all these volumes can still be read in a flyleaf of the Bible he included in his gift. Among the books recorded there, scholars have commonly identified the Martyrologium et regula which concludes the list with DCL, BIV, 24. The fact that two of the main items in this codex are a martyrology and a bilingual copy of the Rule of St Benedict seems to indicate that this is the book found in the original list. Nevertheless, other possibilities have also been examined.

The manuscript itself contains a remarkable number of items composed and written at different times and, indeed, in different places.

In this paper, I will study the main palaeographical and codicological features of this tenth-century manuscript, paying special attention to the Old English copy of the RSB, its possible origin and provenance, and its relation to the original translation of the Latin Regula, probably made by Æthelwold.


John McKinnell

This paper describes the rationale and methods of a 1999 production by Durham Medieval Theatre Company of the English morality play The Summoning of Everyman, which is a translation of the Dutch Elckerlyc, a rhetoricans’ play from Antwerp which won a competition there in 1485. Most modern editions and productions of the English play have been based on the Britwell Court copy of an edition printed by John Skot c.1530, but the earliest text is actually the British Library fragment printed by Richard Pynson in or before 1528. Our performance text was therefore based mainly on this authority except for the first 305 lines, which have been lost and for which the Britwell Court copy represents the earlier of two surviving editions, both printed by Skot. Despite the efforts of some commentators to date Everyman to the last years of the fifteenth century, there is in fact no evidence that it existed before the 1520s, and it seems best regarded as an anti-reformation play designed for performance in a secular setting. Our production therefore used costumes and music that might have been seen and heard in 1528, the year of Pynson’s retirement.

The prologue to The Summoning of Everyman, which has no counterpart in the Dutch play, suggests that the English translator saw a distinction between the play’s moral ‘entent’ and its literal ‘mater’ or story material, and our production set out to investigate this distinction. Perhaps surprisingly, the story material includes a good deal of comedy, and it also draws heavily on an allegorical romance about an unjust steward, which the Dutch author may have derived from the Gesta Romanorum. The paper goes on to consider how the structure and meaning of the play might have been made clear in performance, particularly through the interpretation of the character of Death and the strategic doubling of parts.

Ryan Sandell

into Vedic. LIV 2 :110–111 accounts for the long ā of dāśvā́ṃs - through just the same assumption of reformation of the form after dāś - in the present stem: “Vielleicht Ptz. Perf. Akt. * de-dk̑-u̯ós - dissimiliert zu * dek̑-u̯ós - > * dać-u̯ās -, dann umgeformt nach Präs. * dāć - > ved. dāś - zu

Dan Dediu and Remco Knooihuizen

, roughly between the Protestant Reformation and the French Revolution, was a period of significant improvement in the social status of vernacular languages. Burke (2004), for example, sketches some of 2 R. Knooihuizen, D. Dediu / Language Dynamics and Change 2 (2012) 1–33 the social developments that

Nicholas Zair

be explained analogically (reformation on the basis of other parts of the men -stem), but this sound rule seems ripe for further study. 24 As a confirmation that /mr/ (and presumably /ml/) sequences are also permitted in onsets, I have found only Latin hībernus ‘wintry’, which comes from * ĝ

Marked Subjects in Old Finnish

Internal and Contact-Induced Change

Merlijn de Smit

dealing with a case of contact-induced grammatical change in an emergent literary language of the reformation period, namely Old Finnish from the 16th and 17th century. The motivations of the writers of Old Finnish would lead them to simultaneously to resist, to some extent at least, lexical borrowing, as

Bernard Spolsky

Until quite recently, the term Diaspora (usually with the capital) meant the dispersion of the Jews in many parts of the world. Now, it is recognized that many other groups have built communities distant from their homeland, such as Overseas Chinese, South Asians, Romani, Armenians, Syrian and Palestinian Arabs. To explore the effect of exile on language repertoires, the article traces the sociolinguistic development of the many Jewish Diasporas, starting with the community exiled to Babylon, and following through exiles in Muslim and Christian countries in the Middle Ages and later. It presents the changes that occurred linguistically after Jews were granted full citizenship. It then goes into details about the phenomenon and problem of the Jewish return to the homeland, the revitalization and revernacularization of the Hebrew that had been a sacred and literary language, and the rediasporization that accounts for the cases of maintenance of Diaspora varieties.