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Sudarat Musikawong

This paper examines the formation of transnational subjectivity through Thai political engagements in the United States (US). Thai people in the US participate in Thai homeland politics, while negotiating for a Thai immigrant identity in the US. Thai diasporas exist through political and social experiences, in which Thai communities and persons engage in homeland politics. Political acts and protests by Thais in the United States are not new, but emerged in the aftermath of the Cold War. This paper asks how political exiles, popular protests, film festivals, and satellite television challenge what Benedict Anderson has termed “long-distance” nationalism and Arjun Appadurai’s mediascapes.

V. Irmayanti Meliono-Budianto

Poststructuralism can be employed as a method to analyse literary work. As text that contains literary expression of human life, literary work is open to interpretation and critical analysis. Poststructural approach deconstructs and reconstructs the conceptual construct of writing, metalanguage, and subjectivity in a text.

Epistemological Borders and Crossings in the War against ISIS in the Philippines

The Impact of ‘Ungrievable Lives’ on National Political Discourse

Eduardo T. Gonzalez

discursive approach of Judith Butler in the framing and outcomes of media depictions of grievable and precarious populations on political discourse and practice (especially in times of war) in the Philippines. Of particular importance is Butler’s perspective on victim subjectivity, that is, on the

Pavel Slutskiy

There is a seemingly unbridgeable gap between descriptive statements of moral philosophy (ethics) and prescriptive statements of moral norms. The gap can be avoided by introducing a praxeological explanation of the utilitarian meaning of moral norms which treats them as manmade devices utilized for creating social circumstances that reflect universal subjective value preferences of members of society. The universally shared subjective preference not to be acted upon against ones consent is the reason for adopting a moral norm that prohibits such actions. Adoption of this norm is believed to result in things beneficial to human well-being. As soon as people realize that a norm is in accord with their subjective preferences, the norm becomes adopted by society and internalized by individuals via the communication that sustains it. Along with its internalization the universal norm can take a particular shape contained in background assumptions. The means utilized to ensure that a moral norm is obeyed is the creation of enforcement mechanisms that develop a system of punishments for violating the norm, which then gives way to the development of morally legitimate legal and political systems.

Eberhard Lämmert

When in European scholarship natural sciences have separated from humanities during the 19th century the concept of hermeneutics won the distinctive mark characterizing the special methods of the humanities in contrast to explanation practiced by natural sciences. The high esteem in literary studies for the individuality of a poet or writer implied that the most important aim of understanding and interpreting was to find the authorʼs secret intention. Maintaining the results of such research in literary studies necessarily must remain subjective or even ideologically determined made the Russian formalists - -later the structuralists from Prague and Western Europe- -try to find a more scientific constitution of a poetic text.

Evi Sutrisno

This paper argues that the Hikajat Khonghoetjoe (The life story of Confucius), written by Lie Kim Hok in 1897, is a medium to propose modern ideas of flexible subjectivity, cosmopolitanism, active citizenship and the concepts of good governance to the Chinese Peranakans who experienced political and racial discrimination under Dutch colonization. Using the figure of Confucius, Lie aimed to cultivate virtuous subjects who apply their faith and morality in political sphere. He intended to raise political awareness and rights among the Chinese as colonial subjects and to valorize their bargaining power with the Dutch colonial government. By introducing Confucianism, Lie proposed that the Chinese reconnect themselves with China as an alternative patronage which could subvert White supremacy. Instead of using sources in Chinese, Lie translated the biography of Confucius from the European texts. In crafting his story, Lie applied conglomerate authorship, a technique commonly practised by Malay authors. It allowed him to select, combine and appropriate the source texts. To justify that Confucius' virtue and his teaching were superb and are applicable to contemporary life, Lie borrowed and emphasized European writers’ high appraisal of Confucianism, instead of using his own arguments and opinions. I call this writing technique “indirect agency”.

Saranya Pathanasin

The contributions of centering theory (CT) have been widely accepted in linguistics, but there has not yet been much published research applying the theory to first language (L1) interference. This study applies CT to investigate L1 interference in discourse coherence in essays written in English by Thai university students. A corpus compiled from 50 essays is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Statistical results suggest that CT is more reliable than human raters in measuring coherence, since the data shows no influence of subjective measurement. Further analysis by CT shows that word repetition is the most common form of Cb (focus of attention) in the continuation states (56.6%), and pronouns are the second most frequent form (39.6%). These findings conflict with the predictions of CT, which assert that pronouns are usually preferred over noun phrases. Results of qualitative analysis pointed out that this discrepancy is caused by L1 interference in writing, since word repetition is commonly used in Thai discourse. The Thai students’ English-language writing abilities were at pre-intermediate levels of competence. However, this aspect is not considered negative L1 interference since the use of repetition in the students’ compositions helped the raters follow the ideas in the writing. The results also show that the students were not aware of issues of cohesion and were not confident in using pronouns. The L1 interference in discourse coherence, specifically word repetition, was recognized by Thai raters but not by native English-speaking (NES) raters.

Phrae Chittiphalangsri

Edward W. Said’s Orientalism has long been celebrated for its ground-breaking analysis of the encounters between Western Orientalists and the Orient as a form of ‘othering’ representation. The success, undeniably, owes much to the use of Foucauldian discourse as a core methodology in Said’s theorisation of Orientalism which allows Said to refer to the massive corpus of Orientalist writings as a form of Orientalist discourse and a representation of the East. However, the roles of Orientalist authors tend to be reduced to mere textual labels in a greater Orientalist discourse, in spite of the fact that Said attempts to give more attention to the Orientalists’ biographical backgrounds. In this article, I argue that there is a need to review the question of agency that comes with Foucauldian discourse. By probing Said’s methodology, I investigate the problems raised by concepts such as “strategic formation,” “strategic location,” and the writers’ imprint. Borrowing Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology, I critique Said’s notion of ‘author’ by applying the question of objectivity/subjectivity raised by Bourdieu’s concepts such as “habitus” and “strategy,” and assess the possibility of shifting the emphasis on “texts” suggested by the use of Foucauldian discourse, to “actions” which are the main unit of study in Bourdieu’s sociology.

Diane O'Donoghue

interweaving of ideology and intimacy, offers insights into the construction of subjectivity in early China. It is note- worthy that the information garnered from an examination such as this would have remain unanalyzed had the character been treated solely as a translatable “word” in the manner of a phonetic

Natawan Wongchalard

. Chatri Chalerm Yukol), 2. To explore the action hero’s subjectivity through psychoanalytic notions of autonomy and lack, 3. To analyse how class affects the representation of the action hero. 3 The Context of Thai Masculinity Manas Kingchan (personal communication, October 1, 2012), a film archivist