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Catherine Hezser

, equals the Greek ἰδιώτης in its denotation of the ordinary citizen who is distinguished from the sage. 16 At the same time, wisdom was a subjective category which could not be measured on the basis of fixed and agreed-upon criteria. The wise man was acknowledged as such by his friends and adherents


Reimund Bieringer

2:20 and Rom 8:35, cf 8:39: ‘the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord’). The statement ἡ γὰρ ἀγάπη τοῦ Χριστοῦ συνέχει ἡμᾶϛ in 5:14 is unique. We read ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ Χριστοῦ as a subjective genitive and ἡμᾶϛ as referring to Paul. The latter is based on the fact that in 5:11–13 we encounter a ‘we – you

Ayman Shihadeh

lexical definitions of “good” and “evil” as primary, al-Rāzī reorients the discussion from the ontology of the cosmos to the subjective perceptions of pleasure and pain, so much so that instead of Avicenna’s disjunction of existent things based on their degree of perfection and inter-collisions, al

Michael Ebstein

thought, and will be more disposed towards concrete-anthropomorphic language, towards the literary and the narrative, the imaginative and the fantastic. While theology and philosophy purport to be objective, in a mythic discourse the inner-subjective world of man is blatantly projected onto external