rational pursuit of self-interest. The generation of a theoretical model, which marginalized the gift and left it shorn of its reciprocity, conversely, is located much earlier than Mandeville, and is already to be seen in the publication of ThomasHobbes’ Leviathan in 1651.
Economic theorists of the
issue which concerned several early modern European political writers: how to preserve one’s reputation? ThomasHobbes, for example argued that “the world is governed by opinion”, 4 and Diego de Saavedra Fajardo warned rulers to be aware that “if the Crown is not firmly planted on this central column
Hazard has remarked, the term became more and more frequently used, and also used interchangeably with the phrase citoyen du monde (citizen of the world). 4 An example of the latter may be found in a letter written in October 1655 by Abraham du Prat in Paris to ThomasHobbes, at that time in London