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Volume 4: From the Enlightenment to the Twentieth Century
As in the first three volumes of History of Biblical Interpretation, From the Enlightenment to the Twentieth Century surveys the lives and works of significant theologians and lay people, politicians and philosophers, in order to portray the characteristic attitudes of the era. It discusses the philosophers and politicians Hobbes, Locke, and Spinoza and the writers Lessing and Herder. Biblical criticism per se begins with the controversy over the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament and extends into Enlightenment ethics, myth, and miracle stories. Early representatives include Richard Simon and Hermann Samuel Reimarus, followed by Johann Salomo Semler, Johann Jakob Griesbach, Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, and Philipp Jacob Spener. Biblical scholars such as Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette, Ferdinand Christian Baur, Heinrich Julius Holtzmann, Julius Wellhausen, Hermann Gunkel, Wilhelm Bousset, Karl Barth, and Rudolf Bultmann round out the volume and bring readers to the twentieth century.

, Goza sets out to examine the way Enlightenment figures Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Adam Smith formed Western ways of thinking which contributed to the development of the racial lens through which we see our world. The author believes the root of the problem lies in England at the start of the

In: Pneuma
The English Bible in the Early Modern World addresses the most significant book available in the English language in the centuries after the Reformation, and investigates its impact on popular religion and reading practices, and on theology, religious controversy and intellectual history between 1530 and 1700. Individual chapters discuss the responses of both clergy and laity to the sacred text, with particular emphasis on the range of settings in which the Bible was encountered and the variety of responses prompted by engagement with the Scriptures. Particular attention is given to debates around the text and interpretation of the Bible, to an emerging Protestant understanding of Scripture and to challenges it faced over the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

investigates the Bible with the decisive question: where is God's word to be found in the Bible? 123. Thomas Hobbes saw Scripture as a sourcebook for the law and by extension the need for a king who carries out the duties of the law. Old Testament rulers are the typological models for this ruler. John

In: Horizons in Biblical Theology

’s seizure and consolidation of power 30 and in “the mortal God”—the earthly potentate as Leviathan—who, for Thomas Hobbes (1588-1699), socializes human beings by protecting them from lives and appetites that are “solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.” 31 Though John Locke (1632-1704) was more

In: Horizons in Biblical Theology

condition, but a corruption of his nature."19 He then contrasts two anthro- pologies influential in western and particularly the English- speaking world, namely, those of Hobbes and Locke. Thomas Hobbes saw that "the natural state of mankind is one of unrestricted war and competition" and that in the face

In: Horizons in Biblical Theology