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Silvia Bruzzi and Meron Zeleke

-Sanūsī (1787-1859), Ibrāhīm al-Rašīd (1817-74), and Muḥammad ‘Uṯmān al-Mirghanī (1793-1852), establish their own orders in Africa. Aḥmad Ibn Idrīs’s traditions and teachings became particularly influent for several brotherhoods that were established in nineteenth-century Northeast Africa, namely the Aḥmadiyya