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There is a long tradition in classical scholarship of reducing the Hellenistic period to the spreading of Greek language and culture far beyond the borders of the Mediterranean. More than anything else this perception has hindered an appreciation of the manifold consequences triggered by the creation of new spaces of connectivity linking different cultures and societies in parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. In adopting a new approach this volume explores the effects of the continuous adaptations of ideas and practices to new contexts of meaning on the social imaginaries of the parties participating in these intercultural encounters. The essays show that the seemingly static end-products of the interaction between Greek and non-Greek groups, such as texts, images, and objects, were embedded in long-term discourses, and thus subject to continuously shifting processes.
Author: Selena Wisnom
In Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry Selena Wisnom offers an in-depth literary study of three poems central to Babylonian culture: Anzû, Enūma eliš, and Erra and Išum. Fundamentally interconnected, each poem strives to out-do its predecessors and competes to establish its protagonist, its ideals, and its poetics as superior to those that came before them.
The first of its kind in Assyriology, Weapons of Words explores the rich nuances of these poems by unravelling complex networks of allusion. Through a sophisticated analysis of literary techniques, Selena Wisnom traces developments in the Akkadian poetic tradition and demonstrates that intertextual readings are essential for a deeper understanding of Mesopotamian literature.
Author: Selena Wisnom

, and how they bring out Marduk’s superiority. From the very first time he speaks, Marduk is presented as the new Ninurta, particularly through two well-known adaptations from Anzû , namely the blood on the wind and the tablet of destinies, which both have more significance than previously recognised

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry
Author: Selena Wisnom

: Udug-hul , for example, goes all the way back to the Old Akkadian period (Geller, 2016: 5). Tablet  XII of Gilgameš is a partial translation into Akkadian of the Sumerian poem Gilgameš, Enkidu, and the Netherworld . Other Akkadian poems are adaptations of Sumerian originals: Ištar’s Descent (from

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry
Author: Selena Wisnom

of the name in Enūma eliš is the elaboration of Marduk’s name d dumu-du₆-ku₃, ‘son of the pure place’ ( VII .99). This is a natural adaptation of Ea’s title for his son and implies that Marduk is Ea’s successor in the Apsû. The language used to describe the murder of Apsû is that of a military

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry
Author: Selena Wisnom

take courses of action that avoid certain troubles experienced in the past. 45 The same phenomenon can be found in Erra and Išum , too, which characteristically reverses it. 46 The range of allusive techniques at work in these poems is wide. We find quotations and adaptations of specific lines from

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry
Author: Selena Wisnom

directly as a weapon in Lugal-e (106, 229, 374), so there may also be a sense of adaptation here, a shift away from the literal to the metaphorical. Cf. Seminara for the suggestion that gods are portrayed more anthropomorphically in Akkadian poetry than in Sumerian (2004: 244). 58 It is an interlinear

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry
Author: Selena Wisnom

Enūma eliš where Marduk uses the mace ( IV .129–130) alluding directly to a couplet in Lugal-e (256–257). The messenger Kakka is an adaptation from Anzû that references the original weapon Šar-ur through the meaning of his name, which may point to an awareness of how Anzû itself had borrowed Šar

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry

not universal), because they are tied to adaptationally and socially basic relationships and reflect basic structural properties of the human environment (1995, 131). For the history and an analysis of the appraisal theory, see for instance Plamper 2012, 241–244. 128 For these axes all

In: The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
Author: Ulrike Steinert

. Emotion and Adaptation . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Leichty, E. 2011. The Royal Inscriptions of Esarhaddon , King of Assyria (680–669  BC ) . The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period ( RINAP ). Vol. 4. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns

In: The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia