Military Architecture 1600-1900 contains a selection of 99 printed works that represents the revolutionary developments in fortification in Early Modern Europe in theory and in practice. Similar to the arts, military architecture was split up in national schools or styles, so called fortification manners. The works of Busca, Cattaneo, De Marchi, Tensini, Theti, Zanchi, reflect the Italian School, Errard and Perret the French one and
Specklin’s Architektur von Vestungen is an adaptation of the Italian school in Germany. Stevin’s
Sterctenbouwing discusses Cattaneo, Theti and Specklin to assess the benefits of their fortification systems for the Low Countries. The later French school is well represented by Pagan and the works of probably the most famous engineer of all times, Vauban. His various “fortification manners” were applied all over Europe and beyond. The selected works of Menno van Coehoorn reveal how the French system was introduced in the Netherlands, while the works of Paen, Melder, Ruysch and Sturm are illustrative for the heavy debates that resulted from adapting such complex systems to the nordic situation. While these works in
Military Architecture 1600-1900 allow for a comparative analysis in text and image of European fortification schools, others focus on more local conditions such as Stevin’s works in Dutch and French on the role of pivoted sluices in the fortifications of various harbor towns. Moreover,
Military Architecture 1600-1900 provides insight in the training of fortification in theory and practice for multiple “user-groups”. While the works of the classical authors Caesar, Valturius and Vegetius were used for the philological study of the military arts at universities, the reality of warfare required for training of practical skills for engineers and landsurveyors in the field. Translations of Euclid, works on the practice of geometry and landsurveying (Mallet, Nienrode, Metius, Sems&Dou) were filling that gap.
Military Architecture 1600-1900 represents the protagonists of the history of fortification, it also includes lesser known authors such as Bruist, Capo-Bianco, Gaya, Gerbier and Pfeffinger. Moreover, the selection does not limit itself to military architecture, but includes the military arts (artillery, army camps, siege) and history.
- Prof.dr. Charles van den Heuvel,
Huygens ING and University of Amsterdam
This collection was published earlier in a microfiche collection by IDC Publishers.
architecture may be productively understood as expressive of the adaptations of Mahayana Buddhism in the context of the indigenous religions of Korean Shamanism and Japanese Shinto, both of which remain culturally significant. There are particular congruencies in Japan, where Shinto had established specific
adaptation and translation of imported modernity and formulate the indigenous version. This process of enculturation, as Randolf David explains, designates the conscious and selective adoption of vernacular and indigenous elements from the local culture in order to lend a touch of familiarity to something
Iranian taste, in fact, became the adaptation of a mixture of imagined worlds: the peer-neighbor images of the ideal house (Turkey, Egypt), the exported imagination of the American lifestyle, and the global modern movement, as shown in architectural journals and the media. Consequently, the multitude of
processes of indigenous adaptation, transforms one’s environment. Newer practices thus serve as models that are imported and are more or less adapted to local needs and conditions. 2 As we have seen in previous chapters, the formation process for modern neighborhoods in Tehran implies local and
landowners learned to interact and work with each other and others through negotiation. This negotiation resulted in a novel type of housing: an adaptation of modernist vocabulary by way of vernacular miʿmārs . However, Nārmak remains an example of incomplete modernization. Housing reformers couldn’t always
shopping center as the core of satellite city was acculturated in Tehran and contributed to Iranian urbanism. Ekbātān reminds us that the high level of hybridization of sources, the adaptation of models, and the regurgitation of images can occur even decades after their inception.
be as affordable as other materials currently on the market. Traditional handmade mud brick construction is inexpensive, but requires many modifications in order to withstand moisture and to meet contemporary codes and standards. One modern adaptation of mud brick is the compressed earth block ( CEB
them. The builders used local materials and (contrary to popular belief that associates the use of earth in architecture with poverty) its use results from a population’s adaptation to its environment. 51 There is a regional specificity in southeastern Algeria: the Mzāb, the Miya, and the Rīgh are
of Eastern Christianity. The notion of the immutability of Byzantine inheritance, whether via text, image, or idea, anchors the received artifact in space and time and estranges the possibility of adaptation and interpretation. 54 The case of court rituals in Rus/Muscovy and the Byzantine Empire