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Hugo Pinto, Will Archer, David Witelson, Rae Regensberg, Stephanie Edwards Baker, Rethabile Mokhachane, Joseph Ralimpe, Nkosinathi Ndaba, Lisedi Mokhantso, Puseletso Lecheko and Sam Challis

community-based agenda instigated by the Metolong Dam project (Arthur & Mitchell 2010; Mokoena 2017; King et al. in press; Challis 2018) and project AMEMSA (Adaptations to Marginal Environments in the Middle Stone Age; Stewart et al. 2012), both in neighbouring Lesotho. One of the core objectives in

Molebogeng Bodiba, Maryna Steyn, Paulette Bloomer, Morongwa N. Mosothwane, Frank Rühli and Abigail Bouwman

archaeological site . National Parks Board , Pretoria . Miller, S.M. 1990. Adaptation of Traditional Building Methods. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand. Mooder , K.P. , Weber , A.W. , Bamforth , F.J. , Lieverse , A.R. , Schurr , T.G. , & Bazaliiski , V.I. 2005

Maria H. Schoeman, Byron Aub, John Burrows, Grant Hall and Stephan Woodborne

13 C ratios of Mimusops caffra from Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa . The Holocene 19 ( 2 ), 251 - 260 . Hall , M. 1976 . Dendroclimatology, rainfall and human adaptation in the later Iron Age of Natal and Zululand . Annals of the Natal Museum 22 , 693 - 703 . Hamilton , C. (ed

Marika Low and Alex Mackay

Lesotho Rock-Shelter. BAR International Series 406. Chase , B.M. , Faith , J.T. , Mackay , A. , Chevalier , M. , Carr , A.S. , Boom , A. , Lim , S. & Reimer , P.J. 2018 . Climatic controls on Later Stone Age human adaptation in Africa’s southern Cape . Journal of Human Evolution

Terres cuites et culte domestique

Bestiaire de l’Égypte gréco-romaine

Series:

Céline Boutantin

In Terracotta and domestic worship. Bestiary of the Graeco-Roman Egypt, Celine Boutantin proposes a new approach of terracotta produced in Egypt in the Greco-Roman period. A study taking into account the archaeological contexts allows to propose a synthesis of production workshops and to show, in some cases, an adaptation of the production of local cults. An inventory of figurines found in homes, temples and tombs allow to study the functions of these objects. Through the study of a particular theme, animal terracottas, the author raises questions about beliefs and personal or private practices.

Dans Terres cuites et culte domestique. Bestiaire de l’Égypte gréco-romaine, Céline Boutantin propose une nouvelle approche des figurines en terre cuite produites en Égypte à l’époque gréco-romaine. Une étude prenant en compte les contextes archéologiques permet de dresser un bilan des ateliers de production et de montrer, dans certains cas, une adaptation de la production à des cultes locaux. Elle permet aussi de dresser un inventaire des figurines trouvées dans les maisons, les sanctuaires et les tombes et de proposer une synthèse sur les fonctions de ces objets. A travers l’étude d’un thème particulier, les représentations animales, l’auteur aborde sous un angle nouveau la question des croyances et des pratiques personnelles ou privées.

Elena A. A. Garcea

The combination of artefactual with economic evidence of pastoralism in the Central Sahara, based on the recent excavations at Uan Telocat, a Pastoral site in the Tadrart Acacus, Libyan Sahara, where both ceramic and faunal indicators are present throughout the Pastoral period is undertaken. This rock shelter yielded a stratigraphic sequence with the main Pastoral occupations in the Tadrart Acacus. The results of the latest excavations provided interesting information on technological variability and adaptation patterns from the earliest to the Late Pastoral phases. The excavations also brought to light a specific ceramic production in the Early Pastoral period, that was previously unknown in stratigraphic context.

This paper also presents some of the features of the Pastoral phases and shows the developments of pottery and animal domesticates in parallel at different sites in the Tadrart Acacus with comparisons with the Haua Fteah, in coastal Libya, which has yielded the longest cultural sequence in northern Africa and therefore represents a valuable term of reference. However, more differences than similarities exist between the two regions, the first located in the Sahara, in south-western Libya, the second located in the eastern part of the country on the Mediterranean coast.

Alexa Höhn and Katharina Neumann

Settlement activities of the Nok Culture considerably decreased around 400 BCE and ended around the beginning of the Common Era. For a better understanding of the decline of the Nok Culture, we studied the charcoal assemblage of the post-Nok site Janruwa C, dating to the first centuries CE. Janruwa C differs from Middle Nok sites in ceramic inventory and a wider set of crops. 20 charcoal types were identified. Most taxa are characteristic of humid habitats such as riverine forests, while those savanna woodland charcoal types that had been dominant in Middle Nok samples are only weakly represented. The differences between the Middle Nok and post-Nok assemblages do not indicate vegetation change, but rather different human exploitation behaviors. It seems that the Nok people avoided forest environments while in the first centuries CE, other, possibly new populations settled closer to the forest and were more familiar with its resources. The new exploiting strategies might be explained as adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Our results, together with data from other palaeo-archives in the wider region, point to climatic change as a potential factor for the decline of the Nok Culture. We argue that erosion on the hill slopes, maybe due to stronger seasonality, was responsible for land degradation after 400 BCE and that the Nok people were not flexible enough to cope with this challenge through innovations.

Art and Adaptability

Consciousness and Cognitive Culture

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Gregory F. Tague

Art and Adaptability argues for a co-evolution of theory of mind and material/art culture. The book covers relevant areas from great ape intelligence, hominin evolution, Stone Age tools, Paleolithic culture and art forms, to neurobiology. We use material and art objects, whether painting or sculpture, to modify our own and other people’s thoughts so as to affect behavior. We don’t just make judgments about mental states; we create objects about which we make judgments in which mental states are inherent. Moreover, we make judgments about these objects to facilitate how we explore the minds and feelings of others. The argument is that it’s not so much art because of theory of mind but art as theory of mind.

Evolution and Human Culture

Texts and Contexts

Series:

Gregory F. Tague

Evolution and Human Culture argues that values, beliefs, and practices are expressions of individual and shared moral sentiments. Much of our cultural production stems from what in early hominins was a caring tendency, both the care to share and a self-care to challenge others. Topics cover prehistory, mind, biology, morality, comparative primatology, art, and aesthetics. The book is valuable to students and scholars in the arts, including moral philosophers, who would benefit from reading about scientific developments that impact their fields. For biologists and social scientists the book provides a window into how scientific research contributes to understanding the arts and humanities. The take-home point is that culture does not transcend nature; rather, culture is an evolved moral behavior.