emulations, adaptations, or wholly Roman creations (see above page 9 and e.g., Gazda, 2002; Hallett, 2005; Perry, 2005; Kousser, 2008; Marvin, 2008; Squire, 2012; Trimble, 2016b).
The complex connection between text and artefact has been important since the discipline began, when literary evidence was
Settlement activities of the Nok Culture considerably decreased around 400 BCE and ended around the beginning of the Common Era. For a better understanding of the decline of the Nok Culture, we studied the charcoal assemblage of the post-Nok site Janruwa C, dating to the first centuries CE. Janruwa C differs from Middle Nok sites in ceramic inventory and a wider set of crops. 20 charcoal types were identified. Most taxa are characteristic of humid habitats such as riverine forests, while those savanna woodland charcoal types that had been dominant in Middle Nok samples are only weakly represented. The differences between the Middle Nok and post-Nok assemblages do not indicate vegetation change, but rather different human exploitation behaviors. It seems that the Nok people avoided forest environments while in the first centuries CE, other, possibly new populations settled closer to the forest and were more familiar with its resources. The new exploiting strategies might be explained as adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Our results, together with data from other palaeo-archives in the wider region, point to climatic change as a potential factor for the decline of the Nok Culture. We argue that erosion on the hill slopes, maybe due to stronger seasonality, was responsible for land degradation after 400 BCE and that the Nok people were not flexible enough to cope with this challenge through innovations.
The combination of artefactual with economic evidence of pastoralism in the Central Sahara, based on the recent excavations at Uan Telocat, a Pastoral site in the Tadrart Acacus, Libyan Sahara, where both ceramic and faunal indicators are present throughout the Pastoral period is undertaken. This rock shelter yielded a stratigraphic sequence with the main Pastoral occupations in the Tadrart Acacus. The results of the latest excavations provided interesting information on technological variability and adaptation patterns from the earliest to the Late Pastoral phases. The excavations also brought to light a specific ceramic production in the Early Pastoral period, that was previously unknown in stratigraphic context.
This paper also presents some of the features of the Pastoral phases and shows the developments of pottery and animal domesticates in parallel at different sites in the Tadrart Acacus with comparisons with the Haua Fteah, in coastal Libya, which has yielded the longest cultural sequence in northern Africa and therefore represents a valuable term of reference. However, more differences than similarities exist between the two regions, the first located in the Sahara, in south-western Libya, the second located in the eastern part of the country on the Mediterranean coast.
focused on cultural choices, population demography and group mobility, and adaptations to environmental change (Mitchell 1988; Ambrose 2002; Belfer-Cohen & Goring-Morris 2002; Bleed 2002; Bousman 2005; Costa et al. 2005; Fisher 2006; Doelman 2008; Fullagar et al. 2009; Petraglia et al. 2009; Roberts et al
community-based agenda instigated by the Metolong Dam project (Arthur & Mitchell 2010; Mokoena 2017; King et al. in press; Challis 2018) and project AMEMSA (Adaptations to Marginal Environments in the Middle Stone Age; Stewart et al. 2012), both in neighbouring Lesotho. One of the core objectives in
Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa . The Holocene 19 ( 2 ), 251 - 260 .
Hall , M. 1976 . Dendroclimatology, rainfall and human adaptation in the later Iron Age of Natal and Zululand . Annals of the Natal Museum 22 , 693 - 703 .
Hamilton , C. (ed.) 1995 . The Mfecane
of Dongola. One may, however, suggest that this adaptation was introduced only after the first contacts of people inhabiting wattle-and-daub houses with the population of the town.
The absence of wattle-and-daub architecture on sites excavated in Nubia so far might lead to presumption of its
, P. (eds.), African Iron Working: Ancient and Traditional . Norwegian University Press , Bergen , pp. 36 - 49.
Gordon , R.B. and Killick , D.J. 1993 . Adaptation of technology to culture and environment: bloomery iron smelting in America and Africa . Technology and Culture 34