Art of War adaptations were published over half a century ago in the field of commerce, as parallels can easily be drawn between the competitive arena of trade and the combative theatre of war. To this day, bookstores offer a choice of business adaptations with titles such as The Art of War for
Paul van Els and Frank Witkam
At the systemic level, realist evaluations focus on factors such as the dominance of the technological dimension and the pervasiveness of asymmetrical, low-intensity conflict; whereas at the state level one can find realist explanations, cultural factors, and societal influences. Moral and legal constraints also factor into both the systemic and state levels.
(Oise) du iii e au IIe s. av. J.-C . ( Paris : Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme , 1997 ). Busetto Anna . “ Linguistic adaptation as cultural adjustment: treatment of Celtic, Iberian, and Latin terminology in Arrian’s Tactica .” Journal of Ancient History 1 ( 2
The Indian Army in Far East and South-East Asia, 1941–45
Byzantium, the West and Islam
Leif Inge Ree Petersen
The result was a common post-Roman military culture suitable for more restrained economic circumstances but still able to maintain, defend and attack city walls with skills rivalling those of their Roman forebears.
Dirk H.R. Spennemann
dive bombers for high precision bombing of specific targets (mainly gun installations). From the Japanese defender’s perspective, the changing u.s . attack strategies required an adaptation of their responses. These were primarily the development and positioning of the aa and the
and military instructions issued by the governing bodies of the Monarchy and looks at both strategic planning and the results such planning produced. Nor does Raquel Camarero forgo any effort in her in-depth study of the organization and adaptation of the Spanish troops that took on the challenge of
James A. Sandy
counterinsurgency skills. 15 In an attempt to create more well-rounded and educated officers, Westmoreland’s time at West Point demonstrates yet another example of his early experience with and commitment to special warfare and adaptation within his command. 16 In June of 1964 William Westmoreland became the
was partly revived during the Second World War, during the bitter anti-partisan campaign in the Balkans. The presence, in this campaign, of different officers who had previously served in the colonies promoted the transfer of knowledge from one theatre to another, favored its adaptation to the new
deploy to Africa cohesive, well trained and well-led army units. With this framework, neither innovation nor adaptation were within the range of the Portuguese political and military leadership, in clear opposition to the allies, mainly the British, who were able to adapt, and the enemy, the Germans, who