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Paul van Els and Frank Witkam

Art of War adaptations were published over half a century ago in the field of commerce, as parallels can easily be drawn between the competitive arena of trade and the combative theatre of war. To this day, bookstores offer a choice of business adaptations with titles such as The Art of War for


Avi Kober

This book suggests a general framework for the analysis of formative factors in military thought and offers an account of the Israel Defense Force’s state of intellectualism and modernity. This account is followed by an attempt to trace the factors that have shaped Israeli military thought. The explanations are a mixture of realist and non-realist factors, which can be found at both the systemic and the state level of analysis.
At the systemic level, realist evaluations focus on factors such as the dominance of the technological dimension and the pervasiveness of asymmetrical, low-intensity conflict; whereas at the state level one can find realist explanations, cultural factors, and societal influences. Moral and legal constraints also factor into both the systemic and state levels.

Maxime Petitjean

(Oise) du iii e au IIe s. av. J.-C . ( Paris : Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme , 1997 ). Busetto Anna . “ Linguistic adaptation as cultural adjustment: treatment of Celtic, Iberian, and Latin terminology in Arrian’s Tactica .” Journal of Ancient History 1 ( 2

Sepoys against the Rising Sun

The Indian Army in Far East and South-East Asia, 1941–45


Kaushik Roy

During the Second World War, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) suffered one of its greatest defeats in Burma. Both in Malaya and Burma, the bulk of the British Commonwealth forces comprised Indian units. Few people know that by 1944, about 70 percent of the Allied ground personnel in Burma was composed of soldiers of the Indian Army. The Indian Army comprised British-led Indian units, British officered units of the Indian princely states and the British units attached to the Government of India. Based on the archival materials collected from India and the United Kingdom, Sepoys against the Rising Sun assesses the combat/military/battlefield effectiveness of the Indian Army against the IJA during World War II. The volume is focussed on the tactical innovations and organizational adaptations which enabled the sepoys to overcome the Japanese in the trying terrain of Burma.


Leif Inge Ree Petersen

Siege Warfare and Military Organization in the Successor States is the first study to comprehensively treat an aspect of Byzantine, Western, early Islamic, Slavic and Steppe military history within the framework of common descent from Roman military organization to 800 AD. This not only encompassed the army proper, but also a greater complex of client management, private military retinues, labor obligations and civilian conscription in urban defense that were systematically developed by the Romans around 400, and survived to be adopted and adapted by all successors.
The result was a common post-Roman military culture suitable for more restrained economic circumstances but still able to maintain, defend and attack city walls with skills rivalling those of their Roman forebears.

Dirk H.R. Spennemann

dive bombers for high precision bombing of specific targets (mainly gun installations). From the Japanese defender’s perspective, the changing u.s . attack strategies required an adaptation of their responses. These were primarily the development and positioning of the aa and the

and military instructions issued by the governing bodies of the Monarchy and looks at both strategic planning and the results such planning produced. Nor does Raquel Camarero forgo any effort in her in-depth study of the organization and adaptation of the Spanish troops that took on the challenge of

James A. Sandy

counterinsurgency skills. 15 In an attempt to create more well-rounded and educated officers, Westmoreland’s time at West Point demonstrates yet another example of his early experience with and commitment to special warfare and adaptation within his command. 16 In June of 1964 William Westmoreland became the

was partly revived during the Second World War, during the bitter anti-partisan campaign in the Balkans. The presence, in this campaign, of different officers who had previously served in the colonies promoted the transfer of knowledge from one theatre to another, favored its adaptation to the new

deploy to Africa cohesive, well trained and well-led army units. With this framework, neither innovation nor adaptation were within the range of the Portuguese political and military leadership, in clear opposition to the allies, mainly the British, who were able to adapt, and the enemy, the Germans, who