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The Image of an Ottoman City

Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17th Centuries

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Heghnar Watenpaugh

This urban and architectural study of Aleppo, a center of early modern global trade, draws upon archival and narrative texts, architectural evidence, and contemporary theoretical discussions of the relation between imperial ideology, urban patterns and rituals, and architectural form. The first two centuries of Ottoman rule fostered tremendous urban development and reorientation through judiciously sited acts of patronage. Monumental structures endowed by Ottoman officials both introduced a new imperial architecture from Istanbul and incorporated formal elements from the local urban visual language. By viewing the urban and social contexts of these acts, tracing their evolution over two centuries, and examining their discussion in Ottoman and Arabic sources, this book proposes a new model for understanding the local reception and adaptation of imperial forms, institutions and norms.

Nikolaos Vryzidis

Mallett (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012), 808–14. 27 The exoticism of Metochites’s headdress has been noted by many scholars, but whether it was an imported luxury item or a contemporary Byzantine adaptation has not been definitively established. See Maria Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images

Cailah Jackson

have suggested several origins for the shape in Christian art, including ancient Greek, Roman, and Buddhist art. 40 Comparable research in the Islamic tradition has yet to be carried out. Perhaps these divine associations prompted the adoption and adaptation of the shape by Muslim craftsmen, or

Finbarr Barry Flood

Ocean have recently been underlined by finds of Abbasid luster ceramics almost certainly imported from Basra in the maritime emporium of Sanjan, north of Mumbai. 11 Many of the early coastal mosques show a clear adaptation of the forms and stone medium associated with the local Maru-Gurjara style, but

Laura U. Marks

ceramics on the Iberian Peninsula and in the western Mediterranean basin. I examine how Andalusian ceramics engage haptic space and abstract line, how Christian clients took up these designs, and how, in Spanish and Italian adaptations, haptic space and abstract line gradually deepened out and thickened up

Abbey Stockstill

Abstract

The Kutubiyya Mosque, the hallmark monument of the Almohad dynasty (1121–1269) in their capital city of Marrakesh, has resisted scholarly interpretation due to its unique plan, featuring two prayer halls wedged apart by the monumental minaret. The south-facing qibla and the architectural use of a prior dynasty’s palatial remains further complicate the narrative surrounding the function of the mosque within the urban fabric and the Almohads’ dynastic self-concept. This article argues that such idiosyncrasies are indicative of the Almohads’ sensitivity to the intellectual, religious, and legal arguments of the day, expressed through a deliberate adaptation or repudiation of the architectural precedents in the Islamic West. The Kutubiyya must be understood as a monumental record of the dynastic shifts in ideology and identity as the Almohads struggled to define themselves against their predecessors and competitors. The site’s unique plan and complex construction history are the physical evidence of this struggle, which makes the role of the Kutubiyya in the urban history of Marrakesh all the more significant.

Eva R. Hoffman

sphere can be located within a more widespread adaptation of late-antique forms and vocabulary in Fatimid art, and can be found, in particular, in other Fatimid works related to the nude. 29 The pose, figural types, and drapery of the Fatimid ivory panels in the Bargello Museum, Florence (fig. 4), for

Avinoam Shalem

expression on the face allow for better vision and breathing and involve essential behaviors and adaptations favoring survival. Astonishment is, according to Onians, “a fundamental adaptation which enhances the likelihood of survival.” And he continues, “The most obvious situations in which survival is at

Michele Lamprakos

really function—and how were they adapted to Venetian needs and tastes? What were the limits of this adaptation? This essay explores these questions through a close reading of Venetian, Arabic, and other sources and through an investigation of ar­chitectural and urban traces. The portrait of Venetian

Adam Jasienski

of King Matthias Corvinus (r. 1458–90), whose adaptation of Ottoman vestiary customs will 
be discussed below. 31 In Martin Kober’s 1583 portrait, the Polish king ­Bathory sports what would become the definitive set of Ottomanizing garments in much of East-Central Europe: a voluminous red kontusz