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In North-American and European cities, youth live in precarious social and economic conditions. The issue of employment has become a political problem. In this volume, sociological, economical and ethnographical perspectives are used to explain ethnic discrimination, inequalities at school, unemployment and marginalization. Work remains a central value in young peoples' lives who not only are victimized but also try to find escapes.
Originally in French, this extended and updated book contains contributions by Enrico Pugliese, Saskia Sassen, Min Zhou, François Dubet, Paul Anisef, Paul Axelrod, Ida Susser and others.
In: Chains of Gold
Portuguese Migration to Argentina in Transatlantic Perspective
Author: Marcelo Borges
Why did migrants from southern Portugal choose Argentina instead of following the traditional path to Brazil? Starting with this question, this book explores how, at the turn of the twentieth century, rural Europeans developed distinctive circuits of transatlantic labor migration linked to diverse immigrant communities in the Americas. It looks at transoceanic moves in the larger context of migration systems, examining their connections and the crucial role of social networks in migrants’ geographic mobility and adaptation. Combining regional and local perspectives on both sides of the Atlantic, Chains of Gold provides a vivid account of the trajectories of migrant men and women as they moved from rural Portugal to contrasting places of settlement in the Argentine pampas and Patagonia.
This book brings together the work of a number of leading specialists of the Fulbe (Fulani, Peul), the largest and most widespread group of pastoralists in West Africa. The collection deals with a wide variety of subjects, ranging from ethnicity and identity, ecology and politics, and social transformation and takes us to such diverse settings across the African continent as urban Nigeria, dryland West and Central Mali, the Aadamaawa plateau in Cameroon, the Guinean highlands, the Ivorian savannah, the Central Sudan, Northern Benin and the Senegal valley.
This volume shows that the Fulbe are a fascinating example for the comparative study of social change, and ecological and cultural adaptation by discussing contemporary changes in Fulbe society and the amazing variety of settings in which they are able to survive.

, 48 ( 1 ), 91 - 107 . Rodriguez , R. S. , Ürge-Vorsatz , D. , & Barau , A. S. ( 2018 ). Sustainable Development Goals and climate change adaptation in cities . Nature Climate Change , 8 ( 3 ), 181 . DOI : 10.1038/s41558-41018-0098-0099. Rossi , U. ( 2016 ). The

In: Comparative Sociology

This chapter aims at exploring the variations of the myth of Cain in Miguel de Unamuno’s darkest novel, Abel Sánchez, which, in the words of the author himself, is an exploration on the topic of envy, which he considers to be Spain’s ‘national sin.’ Taking into account both the Bible and Byron’s adaptation, Unamuno explores the complex relation between the two brothers (Abel, successful and admired by everybody; and Joaquín – obvious deformation of the original ‘Cain’–, his best friend and most envious foe) from the point of view of the ‘evil brother,’ who is not only aware of his own sin, but fights against it throughout the whole novel. Unamuno’s novel illuminates aspects of the myth that are shadowed in the passage from the Bible, such as the ambiguous attitude of Abel towards Cain; Cain (Joaquín)’s own feelings of guilt, even prior to the crime; or the unfair distribution of success and failure.

In: Global Perspectives on Villains and Villainy Today
Author: Wessie Ling

From a background of political chaos, the qipao, a sleek sheath with a stand-up collar, rose in an effort to survive and negotiate with uneven power and desire. Following its emergence in mid-1920s China, the qipao gained immediate currency as standard wear for Chinese women until the early 1940s. Despite numerous regulations on dress and women’s bodily appearance in the Republican Era (1911–1949), the qipao has been constantly revamped through new styles and cuts. Despite its national status in late 1920s in China, its most feminine form in the 1930s was as a fashionable dress favoured by Chinese women of the emerging middle class in modernising and booming cities. At a time when nationalism conflicted with the influx of imported goods and Western-style garments, wearing Chinese clothes like the qipao was often seen as cultural resistance to Westernisation. However, the widespread adaptation of the qipao in the 1930s cannot be reduced to a result of nationalism. Rather, its adaptation suggests Chinese women’s resistance to the Nationalist agenda for their bodies and appearance. Fashioning the qipao became a silent tool for Chinese women to struggle against state regulation of their bodies. Through changes in style and responses to Western fashion trends, Chinese women tactically intervened, using the qipao to rebel against the nation’s authority, challenging the dominant Western aesthetic standards. The social practice involved in wearing and developing the qipao manifested a set of aesthetic judgments that was unique to Chinese clothes at that time. This chapter examines how the qipao was worn in negotiation with institutional repression through the study of Linglong, a popular women’s magazine in 1930s China. Chinese women’s attitudes towards Western-style fashion and aesthetic judgment, mediated through resistance and negotiation, will be analysed alongside the creation of new aesthetic standards of Chinese clothes for Chinese women of that time.

In: Fashion Forward
Author: Larisa Kruglova

Therapy by means of colour and music measured by computerised BIOL system for human psychophysiological state (PPS) rehabilitation based on person’s IR radiation is introduced in this chapter. The result of the investigation highlights the necessity for integrated healing approach by means of physical factors like medicamentous or physiotherapeutic and the correction of the subject’s PPS. The correction procedure of the subject’s PPS includes stages of adaptation, estimation of a current psychological person’s state by means of psychological tests, automatic definition of the character of demanded musical influence depending on the results of testing, colour-music biological feedback, the period of a relaxation, final psychological testing. BIOL system has many advantages, including contactless, non-invasion, automatic operation, and individual approach to correcting factors. The important feature of the system is its operation applying the principle of ‘diagnostics during the moment of treatment.’ This system was used in different establishments, medical included, and the testing of the system application showed its aesthetic attraction, reliability, efficiency.

In: The Meaning Management Challenge: Making Sense of Health, Illness and Disease

My research explores the activity of dress, focusing on clothing the body as an everyday practice for young professional women. Clothes are defined as ‘expressions of identity, one of the perennial means whereby we signal to the social world who and what we are; they are part of our repertoire of social technology, a means whereby ideas of identity are grounded in the visual.’1 To capture the ongoing process of self-presentation through clothes, semi-structured interviews and photographs were used to study how women in their late twenties visually construct multiple versions of themselves in the midst of various simultaneous influences, experiences, and demands. As women transition from space to space, the findings demonstrate that dress rules (personal and conventional) and audience play key roles in image creation. Women in this age group also stress a meaningful distinction between ‘work me’ versus ‘regular me.’ Thus, I argue that identity is itself an activity of soft assembly - a performative act of adaptation to circumstances at hand in a solvable, yet unpredictable world. Interaction of individual and lifestyle demands is, therefore, fundamental to our understanding of how people soft assemble via clothing for the kind of lives they lead.

In: Fashion: Exploring Critical Issues
Author: Imola Mikó

Michael Ondaatje’s novel, The English Patient (1992) and its adaptation to the screen by Anthony Minghella (1996) focus on the representation of a man burned in a plane crash in the desert during the Second World War. Besides his serious physical injuries, he also suffers from amnesia. The whole novel/film constitutes a prosopopoeic process of making sense of the English patient by tracing out his face and building up his identity. My aim in this chapter is to analyse how the medium of literature and film configure this diseased character, how they manipulate and distort the body to fit their own codes of representation. More precisely, I will concentrate on the medium specific techniques, on literary and film devices such as comingling of narrative voices, flashbacks, fragmentation, fluidity of images etc. used in order to represent bodily and mental deviations. As the eponym character is placed in both works in the centre of the narrative, it is appropriate to follow up how the other individuals relate to him and, in turn, how his presence and identity shapes the character and behaviour of those around him. I would like to move beyond Judith Butler’s binary opposition of healthy/ill bodies, in this case also a patient/nurse polarity, and follow rather Kaja Silverman’s deconstruction of this antithesis by working out ways through which one can identify with despised bodies. The literary and visual texts prove to be a prolific field to analyse techniques through which this may happen.

In: Relational Concepts in Medicine