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Xue Zhang and Tian Gan

believe that embeddedness is an exchange logic that shapes motivation and promotes coordination and adaptation. The unique feature of this logic is that it shifts the motivation of actors from narrow pursuit of direct economic profits to enriching relationships through trust and reciprocity. 19 Sharon

Wang Chao and Yong Li

and local, or from institutional and organizational, or through adaptation of new technologies, require capacities of management, leadership and governance that are more innovative, integrative and holistic. All the three sectors in China have to become not only passive adaptors, or simply problem

Collaboration for Rights of the Shidu and Its Interaction Mechanisms

A Virtual Ethnography on the Network Community of the Home of the Shidu

Yang Dong and Xiaoxu Chen

Conflicts of Understanding The minimum conditions for a collective action system include the actors’ adaptation to their circumstances that accord with their motives; a stable set of mutual expectations among the actors; and shared meaning of the current events for the actors (Waters, 2000 ). The shidu

Jing Yuejin

Adapt to New Environments Organizations’ adaptation to environment is a universal phenomenon; otherwise, they cannot continue to exist. For an organization such as the Central Committee in which power is heavily centralized and which was arranged according to an ideology of class struggle, such

Shuoyan Li

Blurring and Adaptation to Changing Environments ,” Administration in Social Work 37 , 3 ( 2013 ): 242 - 256 . Spires , Anthony J. , “ Contingent Symbiosis and Civil Society in an Authoritarian State: Understanding the Survival of China’s Grassroots NGOs ,” American Journal of Sociology 117

Yuxin Lan

Remittances.” ( 2016 ). Hailey , John , “Global Trends and Challenges: Strategic Implications for NGOs,” Paper presented at ISTR Conference , Stockholm , July 2016 . Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University , “Adaptation and Change in Six Globalizing NGO

Qun Wang and Yanran Yao

its inverse, dependence, play key roles in understanding interorganizational relationships. The last principle implies that the balance of power usually favors the resource providers, 27 and consequently results in the adaptation of the needing organizations to the providers’ requirements. 28

Market Orientation or Social Orientation?

The Choices of Chinese Government-Organized Foundations in Transformation

Weijing Lu, Chengcheng Liu and Xiaoping Zhao

system; and the institutionalization process of organizations aims to achieve their “legitimacy.” The early studies of the school of thought emphasized organizations’ adaptation to the environment, and hoped to achieve the institutional isomorphism through interaction with the external environment, so as

Running a Religious Philanthropic Enterprise

Tzu Chi’s Waste Sorting and Recycling Program in Taiwan and Its Reference Significance for Religious Groups in Mainland

Wei-Hsu Lu

adaptation” to “religious philanthropy cultivation.” Therefore, religious philanthropy in Mainland has a new opportunity to flourish. 2 The central government promotes religious philanthropy mainly for two reasons. First, the shortage of social services is now a big problem. If religious groups invest their

Tao Chuanjin

802 820 Messick David M. “Individual Adaptations and Structural Change as Solutions to Social Dilemmas” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1983 44 294 309 Olson Mancur The Logic of Collective Action 1965 Cambridge, MA Harvard