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Edited by Isabelle Desportes and Joseph Schrével

The phylum Apicomplexa is characterized by the unique cell organisation of the zoites, the infective stages of unicellular parasites previously designated as Sporozoa. Apicomplexa includes Coccidian and Hematozoa well known for human and veterinary diseases they cause, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, coccidiosis, and the large group of Gregarines, the early branching Apicomplexa. Gregarines are parasite of invertebrates and urochordates and they performed an extraordinary radiation from the marine and terrestrial hosts known from the Cambrian biodiversity explosion. After the basic publication in the Traité de Zoologie by Grassé in 1953, this second edition updates the knowledge with information provided by new technologies such as electron microscopy, biochemistry and molecular biology and to enlighten their high diversity of adaptation to invertebrate hosts living in a diversity of biotopes. The extracellular development of Gregarines, the considerable diversification of their cell cortex, their wide distribution in Annelids, Crustaceans, Echinoderms, Myriapods or Insects with about hundred thousands of species contribute to the understanding of many biological aspects of the pathogenic Apicomplexa. Since 1953, taxonomical reviews on Gregarines were published in the Illustrated Guide of Protozoa. In this supplement, there is a special emphasis on the hosts.

Contributors include: Stuart Goldstein, Ryoko Kuriyama, Gérard Prensier, Jiri Vavra, Lawrence Howard Bannister, Jean François Dubremetz.

Without the financial support of academic and non-profit organisations the edition of this volume would not have been possible. Many thanks to the LabEx BCDiv Biological and Cultural Diversities: Origins, Evolution, Interactions, Future, Groupement des Protistologues de Langue Francaise (GPLF), Société des Amis du Muséum, Société Française de Parasitologie for their generous grants.

Edmund Gittenberger

ADAPTATIONS OF THE APERTURE IN TERRESTRIAL GASTROPOD-PULMONATE SHELLS by EDMUND GITTENBERGER (Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, P.O. Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands) ABSTRACT In gastropod shells, the aperture is the most vulnerable part. Various structures evolved

David Reznick

LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN GUPPIES: A MODEL SYSTEM FOR THE EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ADAPTATION by DAVID REZNICK (Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA) ABSTRACT I have used a diversity of observations and experiments to evaluate whether or not guppy life histories

A. Herrel, R. Van Damme, B. Vanhooydonck, A. Zaaf and P. Aerts

, to an optimal fit between 'design' and ecology. However, the adaptation process may be impeded or slowed down by several constraints or trade-offs between conflicting functions. This is frequently observed by ecomorphological studies focusing on lower taxonomic levels: form-function relationships get

Vincent Ziswiler

-eating pigeons which achieve the fine adjustment by direct regulation of the transport mechanism through the membrane of the microvilli. KEY WORDS: functional morphology, intestinal tract, adaptation, specialisation. INTRODUCTION Viscera in General This section of the congress contains a spectrum of up

M. Olmos, G. Van Snik, J.A. Planell and A. Casinos

possibility that the bird tendons studied work as springs and the supposed evidence of a different mechanical behaviour of some tendons, because of particular adaptative reasons, are discussed. KEY WORDS: tendons, legs, birds, stresses, safety factors, scaling, adaptation. INTRODUCTION In the last few years

Claudia Oliveira, Rui Diogo and Michel Chardon

the PMS among catfish. For each morphological transformation, the way it was realised is hypothesized and the probable adaptive advantage it brings is analysed. KEY WORDS: adaptation, catfish, functional morphology, palatine-maxillary system, macroevolution, maxillary barbels, Siluriformes

Nico M. Van Straalen

effects of toxic chemicals must be seen in the context of the complex of adaptations of animals to the environment. KEY WORDS: adaptation, biotransformation, glutathion-S-transferase, heavy metals, Isopoda, life-history, Lumbricidae, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. INTRODUCTION Variability is one of the

Beat Tschanz

ADAPTATIONS FOR BREEDING IN ATLANTIC ALCIDS by BEAT TSCHANZ (Ethologische Station Hasli des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität Bern, Wohlenstr. 50a, CH-3032 Hinterkappelen, Switzerland) ABSTRACT A long-term research-project on divergent adaptations of four auk species breeding on Vedöy

H. Smit

SOME ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL (PHENO- TYPIC) ADAPTATIONS IN FISHES by H. SMIT (Department of Physiology, Zoological Laboratory, University of Leiden, The Netherlands) SUMMARY This paper deals with phenotypic modifications within individual fishes, by which the fish acclimates to an alteration