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Tom Sjöblom

Journal of Cognition and Culture 7 (2007) 293–312 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2007 DOI: 10.1163/156853707X208521 Spandrels, Gazelles and Flying Buttresses: Religion as Adaptation or as a By-Product Tom Sjöblom Department of Comparative Religion, University of Helsinki

Robert Scott Kretchmar

(1997) to conclude that, whatever the middle part of our story turns out to be, it will be a chronicle of intellectual adaptation, of increasingly sophisticated ways of solving the gritty problems of life. Pinker’s conclusions are echoed by others. Many stories about the so-called great leap forward

Robin S. Brown

their greatest asset. Following the conventional approach, Jolande Jacobi, one of only a few confessed extraverts to have made an impact on the early field, seems to portray the extravert attitude as little more than the method of adaptation most appropriate to the first half of life. Jacobi ( 1967 , pp

Joseph Bulbulia and Andrew Mahoney

considers religious solidarity to be an adaptation for group success, though it is not always clear what unit of selection is implied by “group” (see Group Selection above). Roughly, we assume the total number of groups to be fi xed, that there is variation among the ratios of religionists in these groups

Kevin Lu

interchangeability and modulation’ (ibid). ‘Whenever the libido’, Jung writes, ‘in the process of adaptation, meets an obstacle, an accumulation takes place which normally gives rise to an increased effort to overcome the obstacle’ (Jung, 1917 , para. 568). But if the obstacle is insurmountable for the individual

Donald R. Ferrell

suffered from Dementia Praecox . In Dementia Praecox or Paranoid Schizophrenia , Jung writes: “Reality is repressed … and replaced by the contents of the complex. One must of necessity say that not only the erotic interest but the interest in general has disappeared, that is to say, the whole adaptation

Robert Mitchell

unconscious to be a natural object and aimed for the possibility of understanding the unconscious as an objective psyche.” (p. 43) Stressing the clinical perspective, she says: the individuation process was to alleviate suffering through the interpretation, confrontation and adaptation “between conscious and

Kevin Lu

assessments of the theory of cultural complexes, sibling relationships in the Chinese/Vietnamese Diaspora and depth psychological approaches to graphic novels and their adaptations to film. References Heuer , G. ( 2017 ). Freud's ‘Outstanding’ Colleague/Jung's ‘Twin Brother’: The suppressed psychoanalytic

Karenleigh A. Overmann and Thomas Wynn

motorically (Clark, 1997). Clark’s fishy tale relates how an organism interacts with its environment: brain, body, and world are dynamically intertwined to a degree far beyond mere causal linkage. This may aptly describe the human adaptation as well, though our analog is material culture. That is, for both

Mark Douglas Winborn

communication. From this perspective, our aesthetic tastes and interests are not a rational deductive system, but rather a haphazard collection of evolutionary ‘adaptations, extensions of adaptations, and vestigial attractions and preferences' (Dutton, 2010 , p. 219), which have evolved in a way that