organism is a product of evolution. However, this is not to say that the study of the human evolutionary adaptation has become fully integrated within the study of the evolutionary adaptation of other species. The very notoriety of Wilberforce’s question, which survives only as a reported quote and yet has
. For that, cross-cultural adaptations of measurement instruments are indispensable. The Pet Attitude Scale ( PAS ) from Templer, Salter, Baldwin, Dickey, and Veleber (1981) is a scale often used in English-speaking AAI research (e.g., Morgan, 2009) to assess attitude towards companion animals. It has
In The Green Studies Reader (2000) Laurence Coupe suggests that ‘Nature is perhaps the most complex word in the language’ and argues that ‘green studies […] hinges on the recognition of the complexity of that word and of our relation to whatever it denotes’. The opening section of this essay reviews the difficulties this question has posed to contemporary ecocritical theory. It discusses in particular the tension, identified by Martin Ryle, between ‘nature-endorsing’ approaches – those that take certain texts at face value as ‘true’ records of landscapes, natural processes and environmental practice – and ‘nature-sceptical’ approaches – those that interrogate the uses to which ‘nature’ is put in texts e.g. the social paradigms being proposed.
Part two of the essay argues that nineteenth-century critics have already confronted this specific question – what is nature? Parham then seeks to establish his own approach to what nature ‘denotes’ with reference to what he sees as the most thorough nineteenth-century attempt to theorize the ‘natural world’ – John Stuart Mill’s essay ‘On Nature’ (1874). The body of his argument studies Mill’s essay and highlights the following key arguments: that Mill’s scientifically based understanding that nature has a ‘primary’ or ‘original’ meaning independent of human ‘constructions’; an examination of Mill’s definition of ‘intelligent action’ whereby ‘the activities of men’ are subject to nature’s laws while, nevertheless, ‘Nature [is] a scheme to be amended, not imitated, by Man’ (i.e. within ‘the absolute limits of the laws of nature’ the human race should be free to make adaptations, as indeed do other species); Mill’s conclusion that both human social organisation and the natural environment result from the choice made as to how we live within the ecosystem: ‘by every choice which we make either of ends or of means, we place ourselves to a greater or less extent under one set of laws of nature instead of another’. Finally, the paper looks at how Mill employed this notion of ‘nature’ as the basis for social organisation in the ongoing development of his ‘Principles of Political Economy’. The paper concludes in support of an argument, made by Ryle, that ‘ecocriticism, like green politics, must be centrally concerned with the historical development of “human nature”’.
Andrea Petitt and Camilla Eriksson
useful as a point of departure. Leaning on Rabinow and Rose’s (2006) adaptation of Foucault’s biopower, Holloway and Morris (2012) examine three key axes of biopower: the construction of truths by authorities; the development of interventions to “guide the (re)production” of populations; and
enhance evolutionary inheritance, resulting in a commercially convenient adaptation, a cultural upgrade that neither produces nature nor partners with it in a mutualistic sense. Building on Haraway’s (2003) “natureculture” and the epistemology of other scholars challenging the nature-culture divide
Geoffrey N. Swinney
2011, the elephant now stands as a part of an exhibition element concerned with gigantism as an adaptation, and the anatomical and physiological challenges that this imposes (Figure 10). The present study has tracked not only the mounted elephant through previous phases in its afterlife but also how
blogged about. Their presence was proof enough that the hiker was living in “authentic” wilderness. Once their presence had been established, there was no real need to recount particular incidents. In this way, it could be said that the dwelling perspective encourages habituation—and adaptation—to the
Space, Mobility, Aesthetics
Edited by Esther Peeren, Hanneke Stuit and Astrid Van Weyenberg
diﬀ erent colonial regimes? Using Imperial Japan as a case study, this paper argues that this symbolic pliability is a derivative of the high functionality, wide adaptation, and conspicuous nature of the Shepherd Dog as protector, deterrent, and enforcer of social control. As a visible intermediary in
Janet M. Alger and Steven F. Alger
emerged, which represents the cats' adaptation to the particular conditions of shelter life. Specifically, the shelter allows for the emergence of higher order needs and goals that stress affection, friend- ship, and social cohesion among the cats rather than territoriality and conflict. The study further