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Children of the Laboring Poor

Expectation and Experience among the Orphans of Early Modern Augsburg

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Thomas Max Safley

A companion volume to Charity and Economy in the Orphanages of Early Modern Augsburg, this book takes up the agency and individuality of the laboring poor and their children. It examines the economic lives of poor, distressed, or truncated families on the basis of 5,734 biographical descriptions of children who passed through the City, Catholic, and Lutheran orphanages of Augsburg between 1572 and 1806. Studied in conjunction with administrative, criminal, and fiscal records of various sorts, these “Orphan Books” reveal the laboring poor as flexible and adaptive. Their fates were determined neither by the poverty they suffered nor the charity they received. Rather, they responded to changing economic and social conditions by using Augsburg’s orphanages to extend their resources, care for their children, and create opportunities. The findings will interest historians of poverty, charity, labor, and the Reformation.

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Edited by Francisco Bethencourt

This book addresses different dimensions of cosmopolitanism in the Portuguese-speaking world which have caused much debate, such as migration and globalisation. The volume includes contributions from leading specialists in History, Musicology, Literary Studies, Anthropology and Political Sciences. It focuses on specific processes in Brazil, Portugal, West Africa, Angola, and other parts of the world, from the sixteenth century to the present. Central topics are intercontinental trading elites, the cultural impact of forced and voluntary migration, the republic of letters, the possibilities created by freemasonry and liberalism, the adaptation of the Azorean Holy Ghost Feast to the United States, international links of conservative politicians, the international projection of the new Angolan elite, architecture and urban planning.

Contributors are: Vanda Anastácio, Cátia Antunes, Paulo Arruda, Francisco Bethencourt, Toby Green, Philip J. Havik, David R. M. Irving, João Leal, Giovanni Leoni, Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, António Costa Pinto, and Phillip Rothwell.

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Joop W. Koopmans

from the Austrian Netherlands were placed under the header “France” in the Groninger Courant [Groningen Newspaper] after the French conquered the territory in 1794. Such adaptations were a standard feature; their absence can be explained by either ignorance or partisanship on the part of particular

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Joop W. Koopmans

news periodicals. The first Spanish title, for example, was Salvador José Mañer’s 1738 Mercurio Histórico y Político , a news digest that would exist until 1830. Its content, however, was not original, but a translation and a partial adaptation of the Mercure Historique et Politique , which was

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Olivier Gosselain and Anne Haour

black ox rather than a slave results from a Dendi adaptation of a legend that seems specific to populations of the Gulf of Benin: black oxen, as indeed the idea of the ‘required’ death of a girl, are reminiscent of other traditions encountered in Dendi. 17 Tui, 25/02/15. 18 “Sudo” means “inhabited place