This chapter intends to search for a balance between individual freedom and flourishing community as two interrelated dimensions of human rights. Such a balance can perhaps be better explored in the East Asian context of cultural development than the Western context. The balance is related to the
Confucianism and Reflexive Modernity offers an excellent example of a dialogue between East and West by linking post-Confucian developments in East Asia to a Western idea of reflexive modernity originally proposed by Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens, and Scott Lash in 1994. The author makes a sharp confrontation with the paradigm of Asian Value Debate led by Lee Kwan-Yew and defends a balance between individual empowerment and flourishing community for human rights, basically in line with Juergen Habermas, but in the context of global risk society, particularly from an enlightened perspective of Confucianism. The book is distinguished by sophisticated theoretical reflection, comparative reasoning, and solid empirical argument concerning Asian identity in transformation and the aspects of reflexive modernity in East Asia.
individual empowerment at the cost of community consideration. I am interested in interpreting Confucianism not just as a kind of communitarianism in the conventional sense, but as representing a balanced and thus reflexive approach to human rights. The key component of this is balance and moderation, and
rights ( Chapters Two and Four ), the Confucian focus on balance ( Chapter Three ), and the dual dimensions of human rights communities (Chapter Five ). This chapter begins by clarifying two Confucian trajectories of development: The first is authoritarian, and the second is participatory. The chapter
balance between individual freedom and community development. An important question in this chapter is how to nurture a culturally-sensitive approach to human rights, embracing individuality and sociality as two dimensions of human life (Muzaffar, 1996 ; Yeon, 1996 ). This is why we have paid special
” (Zhao, 2007 : 14). Zhao has made an ambitious attempt to counteract this tendency. His suggestion is to ground human rights on the ontological conditions of human life; that is, social relationships, and a concept of justice that can provide space for balancing or limiting individual-centered rights
, and congress; and also the checks and balances of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government. There are two reasons that popular sovereignty is relevant to re-analyzing the Gwangju struggle. First, the Gwangju citizens’ popular sovereignty was realized autonomously, while other
. Against this background, therefore, this book has explored the significance of Confucianism for many issues, particularly a balanced focus on human rights. Here balance means that human rights promote not only individual freedom and empowerment, but also a healthy and flourishing community, as an