Dayn (debt, liability), in the sense of giving or taking a loan or being indebted to someone (al-Jawharī, 5/2117). The word dayn literally means the balance of a loan or the price owed for a commodity; while the word does not literally apply to a dowry (mahr) or a usurped item of property (ghaṣb
The first part of this contribution provides an account of a rare initiation ceremony of a Hunza shaman (daiyal). The initiation commences with the daiyal inhaling the smoke of burning juniper branches putting him into a trance. This is followed by an enduring dance of the shaman, interrupted only by his conversations with fairies (periye) and violent fits of rage against witches (ruiye). The dance culminates with the daiyal sucking the blood from the severed head of a sacrificed goat. Just before he slips into unconsciousness, his guiding shaman rewards him with an iron bangle (kau). This symbolizes and confirms the bond between him and his periye, established through this initiation. As long as the shaman wears the kau, the artifact will ward off the fairies, and allow the shaman to draw on their magical powers.
The second part, based on interviews with 28 shamans (14 female), illustrates the danger that periye present for potential shamans and the society, and examines how fairies are tamed. It further analyzes the balance of power established between the ruler of Hunza (tham) and the shamans representing his subjects. Even after the Islamisation of the Hunza-society, the tham had to perform ancient religious rituals. Hence, he needed to have close relations with the spiritual world. However, since he was unable to communicate with the fairies, he had to rely on the shamans, who acquired a considerable degree of freedom to endorse or criticize decisions of the tham. This shamanic clout certainly presented a challenge to the ruler and evidenced the need to establish a social mechanism to hold the shamans at bay. Consequently, the tham assigned the Dom—an underprivileged and ethnically different segment of the population completely dependent on him—to perform as musicians in all shamanistic performances. In other words, by monopolizing the sacred music, he could successfully counterbalance the shamans.
Saïd Amir Arjomand
equipment of the army. 39. Their expenditure should be lower than their revenue. Anyone whose expenditure exceeds his income is a fool. Anyone who balances the two is not a fool, but neither is he wise. . . . 25 44. They should be informed about their confidants and servants to assure the latter do not
Saïd Amir Arjomand
trampled upon by the Pahlavi state. Total exclusion from the political order obviated the need for any realistic acknowledgement of the balance of political and clerical power, while the clergy’s isolation from the Western-oriented political and bureaucratic elite precluded the making of any concessions to
Saïd Amir Arjomand
Shah ʿAbbās I, the Great (1587–1629), the haphazard earlier forms of Muharram mourning were transformed into carnevalesque rituals of transgression promoted by the Safavid “theatre state.” (Rahimi 2012:217–34) ʿAbbās I ’s state-building by counter-balancing the Qezelbāsh tribal contingents with a
balance of power to closer regional integration and cooperation, as well as joint provision of regional security. De- spite many objectives and existing obstacles to this scenario of regional development, the author sees it to be the only way toward a stable and long-term security in the region. The
, prosperity, and security of their territory in Northern Iraq? Additionally, does Iraqi Kurdistan have the ability to adequately balance the often mutually exclusive demands it faces from powerful external actors? Clearly, the people of Iraqi Kurdistan must make their own choice in the matter. Nonethe- less
Jost Gippert and Wolfgang Schulze
The so-called Caucasian Albanian Palimpsest kept in St. Catherine's Monastery on Mt. Sinai for the first time allows to draw a comprehensive picture of one of the languages (probably the state language) of the third medieval Christian kingdom in Transcaucasia, namely (Caucasian) Albania. The relevant parts of the two palimpsest manuscripts (Sin. N 13 and N 55) covering roughly 120 pages (that is two thirds of the two manuscripts) have been deciphered, interpreted, and translated in the course of an international project running since 2003. The Caucasian Albanian texts comprise a) fragments of a Lectionary, and b) parts of the Gospel of John, written by a different hand in a different style. A number of both text-internal and text-external arguments suggest that the original manuscripts were produced in the 7th century A.D. The analysis of the texts clearly argues in favour of the assumption that the translators relied upon corresponding Old Armenian sources. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the texts in parts deviate from those Old Armenian Bible texts that have survived to our days, so that Georgian, Greek, and Syriac sources must also be taken into account. The readable passages of the two texts furnish us with roughly 8,000 word tokens (some 1,000 lemmatised lexical entries). Hence, the Caucasian Albanian palimpsest gives a considerable insight into the lexicon, grammar, and phonology of its language, which can now safely be identified as an early variant of Udi (East Caucasian, Lezgian). Caucasian Albanian (or Old Udi) differs from present-day Udi in a number of features, including an additional set of palatalised consonants, a more conservative system of local case markers, gender distinction within the set of anaphoric pronouns, and a stronger tendency to construe larger clitic chains. The lexicon is marked for three aspects: a) the preservation of Lezgian terms lost in present-day Udi; b) a set of loans from Armenian and (less prominent) from Georgian; c) loan translations especially from Armenian. The syntax of the texts comes close to that of its sources; however, the texts also exhibit a number of syntactic features alien to both Armenian and Georgian. This suggests that the translators tried to find a balance between the preservation of the original wording of the sources and the necessity to meet the needs of the Caucasian Albanian speaking audience.
. Autonomous State in Iran: Shah ‘Abbas the Great (1587-1629) 5. Political Islam In Iraqi Kurdistan 6. Iran’s Contribution to Democracy, Human Rights and the Rights of Women 7. An Islamic View on Caesarean Childbirth as Reflected in Visual Arts 8. “The Song of Balance”: A Qur’anic Motif in the Yezidi Religious
12. "The Song of Balance": A Qur'anic Motif in the Yezidi Religious Tradition 13. Assyrians of Iraq: Past and Present 14. Israel and the Kurds (1949-1990) 15. The Location of Interests Between Military and Faith in Turkey after the 1980 Military Coup 16. The Socio-linguistic Situation in Badakhshan