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Shan Jiangdong

Phallogocentrism as cultural abuse of sex is a difficult issue that has been addressed by many modern Western feminist philosophers. By comparing their insights with those deriving from Chinese Confucianism and Daoism, I propose the concept of “affectionate respect” as an intellectual counterbalance to phallogocentrism. In this essay, I have discussed certain arbitrary fallacies based on masculine predominance and spotlighted the merits of being female in balancing emotion and reason, justice and fairness, and institutionally-biased powers and the human rights of innate dignity. To achieve gender justice and equality before God and under Heaven must be logically and morally extended to law and politics.

GUO Qiyong

Traditional Confucian political culture (including its concepts, systems, practices and folk customs) has a legacy that deserves careful reconsideration today. Its theories, institutions, and practices address the source, legitimacy, division and balance, and restriction of political power. Confucian politics is a type of “moral politics” which sticks to what ought to be and what is justifiable, and holds that political power comes from Heaven, mandate of Heaven or Dao of Heaven, which implies that justification and standards rest with the people referring to scholars peasants, workers and merchants. This type of justification is rooted in the public space and the autonomous strength of the people, and it finds guidance in the involvement, supervision, and criticism of the class of scholar-bureaucrats (shi 士). In this article, Western political philosophy will be taken as a frame of reference for evaluating Confucian conception of justice as well as Confucian ideas of distribution, fairness of opportunity, caring kindness for “the least advantaged,” and institutional construction. It will argue that the leading characteristic of Confucian political theory is that of “substantive justice.”

Yuan Guiren

relationship between self-reliance and supervision, competition and cooperation, efficiency and fairness, democracy and centralism, being pragmatic and innovation. We must try to establish such socialist views of interest as maintaining a good balance between the state interest and individual interest, i

Zhang Xuezhi

anthropocentrism. The question is whether we can strive for a proper balance between anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism, or whether we may develop a new ecological theory to successfully eliminate the imperfections of these two positions and retain their merits. In my view, Wang Yangming’s theory — “the

Gao Shan

’s “biocentric outlook on nature” is also based on ecological science: “the interdependence of all living things in an organically unified order whose balance and stability are necessary conditions for the realization of the good of its constituent biotic communities” (Taylor 1992, p. 104). He stresses that this

Chao Fulin

the thinkers in Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States who made contributions to bring it deep into people’s mind. The ancient Chinese thoughts were mainly concerned with people’s recognition and development of their own abilities, with people’s seeking harmony and balance between human

Tong Shijun

the verdicts of the majority for those of reason. They incorporated “an ingenious system of checks and balances” in the structure of government because they were worried by the possibility that a Front. Philos. China (2006) 2: 295 − 316 301 Congress controlled by the majority would violate the

Cui Tao and Guo Qiyong

., especially the balancing function of li (courtesy). Such is the starting point from which we are to discuss Confucianism and Christianity with ease. 10 Common arguments focus on “love with and without distinction” as regards love in terms of Confucianism, as if love with distinctions cannot be called charity

Guo Zhaodi

and ease, length and shortness, good and evil, sound and voice, front and rear, among others, so as to reach the stature of balance. In effect, only in this way can the meaning of wuwei 无为 (doing nothing) be truly understood. When there is no distinction between right and wrong, good and evil, there