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Series:

Petri Ylikoski

1 Introduction What was the role of belief in gods in the development of human prosociality and cooperation? The emergence of large-scale human cooperation is a theoretical puzzle that has given rise to a number of quite different hypotheses. Several authors have suggested that religion could have

Series:

Jutta Jokiranta

relationship between morality and religion is this: Is there any evidence that god-beliefs enhanced pro-social behaviour (also towards non-kin group members) and thus played a role in human cultural evolution? “Which comes first, cooperation or beliefs about moralizing gods?” as Ilkka Pyysiäinen puts it

Series:

Ilkka Pyysiäinen

is impossible without belief in God; atheists are also the most distrusted minority. Whereas anti-gay prejudice is characterized by dislike, anti-atheist prejudice is based specifically on distrust. 2 Sinnott-Armstrong, however, turns the argument around in writing that if God existed, then

Series:

Simo Knuuttila

,” in The Neural Basis of Human Belief Systems . Edited by F. Krueger and J. Grafman . New York : Routledge , 2013 . Calvin Jean . Institutio christianae religionis , Opera selecta , vol. 3 . Edited by P. Barth and G. Niesel. Munich : Chr. Kaiser Verlag , 1926 . Descartes R. Meditationes

Series:

István Czachesz

whether the text caused the respective behaviors and beliefs or simply reflected existing behaviors and beliefs, as redaction criticism would assume. It is relatively easy to identify issues related to network formation, identity, and rituals in the texts. It is less straightforward to explain how

Series:

Heikki Räisänen

. Tübingen : Mohr Siebeck , 1987 . Räisänen Heikki . The Rise of Christian Beliefs: The Thought World of Early Christians . Minneapolis : Fortress , 2010 . Reumann John . Philippians: A New Translation and Commentary . Anchor Yale Bible 33 B . New Haven : Yale University Press , 2008 . Sanders E

Series:

Petri Luomanen

. New York : Random House , 2005 . Stark Rodney . Discovering God: The Origins of the Great Religions and the Evolution of Belief . New York : HarperCollins , 2007 . Stark Rodney , and William S. Bainbridge . A Theory of Religion . Toronto Studies in Religion 2 . New York : P. Lang , 1987

Series:

Kari Syreeni

, 1 John 3:9), and then the various Gnostic movements. It is also worth considering that the belief—in mainstream Christianity as well as otherwise—in an eternal life or immortality is akin to the idea of theosis ; what separates God/gods from humans (and animals) is precisely that the latter are

Series:

Lauri Thurén

, references to lapidation or to dietary regulations. 2 Despite a common belief, Paul nowhere divides the Law into an acceptable moral section and a rejected ritual section, or rejects only its social function. Such distinctions cannot be documented in his texts. See further Lauri Thurén, Derhetorizing Paul

Series:

Risto Saarinen

link between religion and morality. An individual introspection may still be able to produce a causal description between the individual conviction and action, although even this could be debated. But when we deal with group beliefs and group agency 3 which extend over large space and long time, the