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Suzanne M. Adema

standard. Yet on that day, while by chance he made the seas ring with his hollow shell—madman—and with his blare calls the gods to contest, jealous Triton, if the tale can win belief, caught and plunged him in the foaming waves amid the rocks. The postquam - clause indicates the first reference time of

Classical Greek Syntax

Wackernagel's Law in Herodotus

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David Goldstein

In Classical Greek Syntax: Wackernagel's Law in Herodotus, David Goldstein offers the first theoretically-informed study of second-position clitics in Ancient Greek and challenges the long-standing belief that Greek word order is ‟free” or beyond the reach of systematic analysis. On the basis of Herodotus’ Histories, he demonstrates that there are in fact systematic correspondences between clause structure and meaning. Crucial to this new model of the Greek clause is Wackernagel’s Law, the generalization that enclitics and postpositives occur in ‟second position,” as these classes of words provide a stable anchor for analyzing sentence structure. The results of this work not only restore word order as an interpretive dimension of Greek texts, but also provide a framework for the investigation of other areas of syntax in Greek, as well as archaic Indo-European more broadly.

Series:

Jan den Boeft, Jan Willem Drijvers, Daniël den Hengst and Hans C. Teitler

This is the final volume in the series of commentaries on Ammianus' Res Gestae. The last book of Ammianus Marcellinus’ Res Gestae is the most important source for a momentous event in European history: the invasion of the Goths across the Danube border into the Roman Empire and the ensuing battle of Adrianople (378 CE), in which a Roman army was annihilated and the emperor Valens lost his life. Many contemporaries were of the opinion that this defeat heralded the decline of the Empire. Ammianus is sharply critical of the way Valens and his generals handled the military situation, but holds on to his belief in the permanence of Roma Aeterna, reminding his readers of earlier crises from which the Empire had recovered and pointing to the incompetence of the barbarians in siege craft.

Series:

Julián Méndez Dosuna

Abstract

For all its increasing popularity, the belief that relative tense achieved grammatical status in Ancient Greek is misguided. The morphology of Ancient Greek lacked the means to express temporal depth in a sequence of events. Instead, Relative Time Reference (RTR) was contingent on context-dependent pragmatic implicatures. Predicates of immediate perception, which, by definition, involve two simultaneous events, the act of perception itself and the situation perceived, provide incontestable evidence that RTR could not be signaled by participles. Another category that is generally believed to exemplify RTR is the so-called ‘oblique imperfect’, which, superficially, looks like a typical case of sequence of tenses in reported speech. The reality is that, despite superficial similarities, the ‘oblique imperfect’ correlates with neither reported speech nor tense backshift. In some languages of the world, subordinate clauses take different tenses depending on whether they are governed by reporting or perception verbs. In Greek, the construction with the ‘oblique imperfect’ arose in conjunction with perception verbs that secondarily became reporting verbs. In fact, the very existence of a rule of tense backshift in Ancient Greek is unimaginable, precisely because it lacked relative tense, without which tense backshift is not possible.

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Albert Rijksbaron

Edited by Rutger J. Allan, Evert van Emde Boas and Luuk Huitink

this tendency: ‘after Hom. neut. [445] πρότερον freq. as Adv., before, earlier … Also used with the Art. τὸ π.’ 9 Although this view tallies with the widespread belief that in several types of noun phrases the article may be added or omitted at will, without any discernable semantic effect, 10 it

Series:

Albert Rijksbaron

Edited by Rutger J. Allan, Evert van Emde Boas and Luuk Huitink

questions (Lyons’ numbers) (21) Is the door open? and (22) Isn’t the door open? , argues (1977: 765) that ‘[t]he speaker utters (22) rather than (21) because there is some conflict between his prior belief that p is true and present evidence which would tend to suggest that ~ p is true. He questions

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Sara Chiarini

considerations, an artistic employment of writing cannot suffice as the explanation for the birth and spread of the phenomenon of nonsense inscriptions. 2 Just for the Prestige of Writing? A second common opinion regarding nonsense inscriptions follows from the belief that, especially in the early

Series:

Sara Chiarini

to human ears. This belief is deeply rooted in ancient Greek thought: many passages from the Homeric poems remind the reader that the gods have another word by which they call one thing or another. 48 Oracular practice itself was based on the conception that the divinity does not want to speak its

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Emilia A. Barbiero

: Ἔκρινα οὖν πολυτελοῦς τραπέζης ἀπολαύσας ἀποπτύσαι τὸ ζῆν, κρείττονα ὀδυνηροῦ βίου τὸν καθ’ἡδονὴν θάνατον ἡγησάμενος. 3.3.3 I have decided, then, after I have eaten an extravagant meal, to spit out my life 19 —in the belief that a death in the midst of pleasure is better than a painful existence. Letter

Series:

Albert Rijksbaron

Edited by Rutger J. Allan, Evert van Emde Boas and Luuk Huitink

by him, of Goodwin–White, cannot be defended either. Krüger’s reasoning is so bizarre and unclear that I shall discuss it in some detail in an Appendix, which includes Krüger 1845. Bent is alone in his belief that the possessive genitive is used to express the origin. All this means that of