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Four Types of Loyalty in Early Modern Central Asia

The Tūqāy-Tīmūrid Takeover of Greater Mā Warā al-Nahr, 1598-1605


Thomas Welsford

At the turn of the seventeenth century, a new dynastic party established authority across Central Asia. In Four Types of Loyalty in Early Modern Central Asia, Thomas Welsford offers the first detailed account of how and why this happened. By examining some of the ways in which various social groupings helped to facilitate the Tūqāy-Tīmūrids’ acquisition of power, Welsford considers how such an instance of dynastic change might reflect the shifting loyalties, beliefs and preferences of an often overlooked wider subject population.

Victoria Arakelova and Tereza Amrian

The concept of the Afterlife is not explicitly articulated in the syncretic system of Yezidism. The paper is an attempt to reconstruct, as far as possible, the idea of the Hereafter among the Yezidis, based on all available data—popular beliefs, legends about deities, saints and other characters related to the sphere of life after death, as well as certain loci from the Yezidi lore (Qawl-ū-bayt’), containing either direct information on or allusions to the ideas of the Beyond ever existed in the Yezidi tradition.

Ali A. Bulookbashi

Evil eye (chashm-zakhm, ʿayn, naẓar), harm which, according to popular belief, is caused by admiring or envious looks or praise directed at a person, animal, plant, or other object by  friends, acquaintances or enemies. It is popularly believed that many deaths, ailments, and other natural events

Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj and Negahban, Farzin

Arbaʿīn, signifies the fortieth day after the martyrdom of Imam al-Ḥusayn which is commemorated annually by Imāmī Shiʿis. According to an early belief, it was on this day that the severed head of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī was reunited with his body at Karbalāʾ.

Esots, Janis and Mehrvash, Farhang

(Spreading out the Earth), an expression that refers to the expansion of the earth from beneath the Kaʿba at the beginning of creation. It is taken from the Qurʾān (79:30) and refers to a belief held within certain circles of pious Shiʿi Muslims. Every year, on 25 Dhū al-Qaʿda, the anniversary of

Bahramian, Ali, Gholami, Rahim and Hirtenstein, Stephen

Bābak Khurram-Dīn (d. Ṣafar 223/January 838), was the leader of the Khurramiyya revolt during the first part of the 3rd/9th century. Although he was extremely well-known, the scant information on his genealogy, beliefs and doctrines in primary sources makes it difficult to construct a unified

Jalali-Moqaddam, Masoud, Qasemi, Jawad and Safvat, Dariush

Ahl-i Ḥaqq (people of the truth), a Persian religious sect with mystical leanings. Although some of their rites, ceremonies, scriptures and beliefs are deemed to be in conflict with orthodox and legal conceptions of Islam, the sect has flourished in various Muslim contexts, with a significant

Brown, Keven, Heravi, Najib Mayel, Khodaverdian, Shahram, Melvin-Koushki, Matthew and Pakatchi, Ahmad

Allāh, the Arabic term used in the Qurʾān to denote the God of monotheistic belief. The most basic tenet in Islam is tawḥīd, the declaration of divine unity together with its primary implication: God alone must be worshipped to the exclusion of any other supposed ‘god’. Islam is thus wholly

Bahramian, Ali and Poor, Daryoush Mohammad

Bih Āfarīd (Bihāfarīdh) (d. ca. 131/749), the founder of the Bih Āfarīdiyya group, who laid claim to being a prophet. There seems to have been two sources accessible to early authors about the life of Bih Āfarīd, his beliefs and activities: one is by Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbbās al-Ṣūlī (d. 243/857), who

Masoud Tareh

‘faith healing’ or ‘supplication’ that rests on the belief that God’s will and other spiritual forces play a direct role in the everyday life of human beings. As such, it enjoys greater religious legitima...