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Thomas E. Bowman

Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme north-west part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza. Samples collected at several hundred stations in the other Canary Islands failed to yield a single calanoid, supporting the belief that the eastern islands are fragments of the African continent that drifted to deeper waters.

Koenraad Kortmulder

learning under natural conditions. Regrettably also in dutch, or it might have attracted the attention it deserved. While adhering to the neo-darwinist belief in natural selection as a determi- nant of evolution, he pointed out that the directions in which selection acts is time and again set by non

Godfrey B. Mbahinzireki

species of haplochromines investigated; not even H. ptistes, the second molluscivore examined. The parasite appears to show some degree of host specificity. The observation confirms the general belief that trematodes usually demonstrate a high level of adaptation to their hosts. Another possible factor

Robert A. Hinde

complexity (Hinde, 1987). Furthermore behaviour in an interaction is influenced by the social norms current in the group, and by the rights and duties appropriate to persons in the several roles they occupy. These roles, and the in- stitutions to which they contribute, as well as the beliefs, values, customs

W. Wilhelm

the generally held belief, that the effect of allometric growth was sufficiently eliminated by functional morphologists comparing head-shape of differently sized cichlid species. Reanalysing data from Barel and Voogt-Kokx (published in DULLEMEYER & BAREL (1977)) and amplified with some new data

D.A. Hooijer

phenomenon that is known in many mammals, Man included, as "closing of the ranks", teeth drifting together so as to assure continuous contact within the func- tional series. The "horizontal replacement" is not a substitute for the vertical, and is not peculiar to the elephant. INTRODUCTION The belief is

H. Jachmann

was 5.60. Their similarity supports the belief that the sampling of data in order to obtain the age-structure of the population was near random and representive. METHODS S The Kasungu National Park comprises an area of 2450 km2, covering a large part of the Kasungu Plateau, which ranges in altitude

Susan Oyama

inappropriately (LEWONTIN et al., 1984). To many people, in fact, lay persons and experts alike, terms like 'genetic' or 'biological' mean fixity or inevitability. A corresponding assumption exists that environmental effects are reversible. (The absur- dity of this last belief should have become clear to every

D.S.C. Lewis

most of the Lake Malawi cichlid communities which have been studied. The main reason for this is that, contrary to general belief, a large number of Lake Malawi cichlids, including many which display extreme morphological specialisation in their feeding apparatus, are facultative feeders which have

Cock Van Oosterhout and Paul M. Brakefield

supports this belief. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We acknowledge the assistance of Marianne van Heuven, Els Schlatmann, Bert de Winter, Wil v.d. Hoeven and Fanja Kesbeke especially in the rearing work. We are also grateful to Bas Zwaan and Cok van Oosterhout for criticism of a previous version of this manuscript