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Aren Roukema

an extremely diverse movement, often interconnected with the modern occult network, which featured many individuals who shared Spiritualism’s interest in mediumship and its belief in alternate realms of existence accessible from the material world. 4 The otherworlds of All Hallows’ Eve and

Difference Unbound

The Rise of Pluralism in Literature and Criticism. 2nd Edition


Stamos Metzidakis

This is the first book to examine the precise relationship between pluralism and the production of Western literature and criticism from the eighteenth century to the present. It underscores the historical rather than exclusively epistemological reasons behind what is here called “the rise of literary pluralism.” This rise entails, on the one hand, the modern day phenomenon of an ever-increasing number of readings of both canonical and contemporary works of verbal art; and, on the other, our ever-growing body of literature written with an eye towards different types of characters, situations, forms and styles. Reviewing a wide range of authors and thinkers—from German, French and English Romantics to Anglo-American and European poststructuralist theorists—it shows how and why the current literary emphasis on difference derives from an unquestioned allegiance to the notion of cultural pluralism. While never denying the value of the latter, it seeks instead to analyze the oftentimes unquestioned implications of this historically-situated belief within the specific realm of literary studies.

Fénelon’s Gods, al-Ṭahṭāwī’s Jinn

Trans-Mediterranean Fictionalities

Shaden M. Tageldin

posits a plausible narrative world, tells “believable stories that [do] not solicit belief.” 9 Gallagher also suggests that the modern European novel distances fiction from direct reference to external worlds. I argue that al-Ṭahṭāwī’s rehabilitation of the mythological as the supernatural

Ammeke Kateman

international relations during his conversation with ʿAbduh in the summer of 1903, in which the philosopher blames the loss of virtue ( faḍīlah ) and the ensuing disappearance of right and justice ( al-ḥaqq and, in the version of 1922, also al-ʿadal ) on the spread of materialist beliefs amongst Europeans

Netanel Anor

culture to the rise and fall of human civilization. 58 Moreover, in the same period, the belief in the so-called “Aryan Myth” began to gain more and more influence. This belief viewed the Aryan race as an essence responsible for all the achievement of human civilization, and tied these achievements to

Kurt Campbell

individuals and their projects are foregrounded as crucial beacons in the call for a general, and urgent, philological reversion. By this I mean the emphatic return to a special practice of and belief in indigenous scripts (and the worlds they produce) as embodied systems of tradition that occupy the central

Tal Hever-Chybowski

national value in its future. 34 Borochov refers to scholars such as Taviov when he claims that “a person who does not believe in the existence of Yiddish may still be a Yiddish linguist, but not a Yiddish philologist.” 35 The “belief in the existence of Yiddish” should be understood in this context both

Thomas S. Mullaney

elaborate assortment of type requires a most remarkable memory.” 32 Even while being aware of the original purpose and limited objectives of Zhuyin zimu—this so-called “Chinese Alphabet” invented for and by China itself—nevertheless the power of belief in the inevitable phoneticization of Chinese writing

Victoria Ríos Castaño

of hypotheses. Both texts appear to stem from the same manuscript, originally written in Quechua. The derivative in Quechua is the outcome of a colonial representation of Andean beliefs and cultural practices, whereas the Spanish text shows Ávila’s Christian and, at times, reprobatory perception of

Paul Scott

:881–927, maintains that religious belief was largely responsible for marital patterns during the period. Antonio Urquízar-Herrera, ‘ “Making Invisible Things Visible and Palpable”: Visual Marks of Nobility in Early Modern French Social Theory and the Embodiment of Social Estates in Collections, 1550–1650’, WI , 31