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de Wall, Heinrich

[German Version] I. History – II. Freedom of Belief – III. Freedom of Conscience Besides legal questions, freedom of belief and freedom of conscience touch on fundamental philosophical and theological problems (Human rights). Article 4, §1 of the German Basic Law (Grundgesetz) guarantees that

Somov, Alexey

originated in the beliefs in the afterlife current in ancient Israel. Later, it was developed further in early Jewish religion and in early Christian beliefs and literature. This article mostly deals wit...

Edsall, Benjamin A.

Within early Christianity, community letters are foundational. Letters sent to specific communities had the purpose of establishing their identity and/or urging them to a certain kind of behavior or belief. These letters took a variety of forms to match a variety of purposes and have varying

Somov, Alexey

The afterlife is the continued existence of human beings after physical death, either in a specific realm or on the earth. It can also be called “life after death,” “the hereafter,” or “the postmortem existence.” The early Christian belief in an afterlife is manifested in several aspects: various

Lietaert Peerbolte, Bert Jan

In the patristic period, the figure of Antichrist becomes the eschatological archenemy of Jesus Christ, whose advent is expected to precede the Parousia. The belief in this figure emerged as part of a gradual process in which various earlier ideas on eschatological opponents merged into one, more

Denzey Lewis, Nicola

All major cultures surrounding the Mediterranean basin developed some conception of a special realm inhabited only by the dead. The two cultures that most deeply seeded early Christian conceptions of the afterlife – Greek and Jewish – had varied afterlife beliefs; Egypt, too, with its distinct

Schreiber, Stefan

As in ancient culture in general, death in early Christianity appears as an anthropological constant and as the last threat to human life. Death can be understood as a termination of all (human) relationships; however, the belief in the resurrection of Jesus decisively changed the perspective of

White, Carolinne

Friendship is a reciprocal loving relationship, usually between two people but also between members of a group who share ideals, beliefs, and interests. In early Christian writings, the concept of friendship occurs in different contexts, influenced by Greek and Roman theories on the subject, by key

Gwynn, David M.

(preserved in Eus. Hist. eccl. 6.14.8–9), he refers to Pantaenus and Clement of Alexandria as his past teachers through whom he came to know Origen himself. This statement has encouraged the belief that Alexand...