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Sandra Bolzenius

World War, more than 140,000 women had enlisted in the Women’s Army Corps ( wac ), including 6,500 African Americans. 2 Like other soldiers, black Wacs laid claim to their full citizen rights as military personnel. As both black and female, this required additional battles against thickets of

Geyer, Martin H.

Cook, Tim

Cook, Tim - Black-Hearted Traitors, Crucified Martyrs, and the Leaning Virgin: The Role of Rumor and the Great War Canadian Soldier Keywords: crucified Canadians | guardian angels | leaning golden Virgin | leaning virgins | nefarious traitors | rumors ISFWWS-Keywords: Canada | Soldiers and Combat

Kuhlman, Erika

April 1920, various German citizens' organisations, encouraged by their government, launched a campaign against France's stationing of colonial African soldiers in its zone of the German Rhineland. The goal of the drive - known as the 'Rhineland Horror' or 'Black Horror' campaign - appeared to be to rid

Singh, Gajendra

would be assessed somewhere between 'White' and 'Black', reconditioned, and then returned to their old military units. The men of the battalion were cited as an example of how low Indian soldiers had fallen. Few of those interrogated expressed a desire to serve as soldiers once more, but rather did

: Women and the Second World War Table of Contents  167 Articles Women and the Second World War  171 Sandra Trudgen Dawson Wives of Secret Agents: Spyscapes of the Second World War and Female Agency  181 Claire Hubbard-Hall and Adrian O’Sullivan Asserting Citizenship: Black Women in the

Special Issue Women and the Second World War Articles Women and the Second World War Sandra Trudgen Dawson  171 Wives of Secret Agents: Spyscapes of the Second World War and Female Agency Claire Hubbard-Hall and Adrian O’Sullivan  181 Asserting Citizenship: Black Women in the Women’s Army Corps

where she focused on gender and African American histories. Reflecting her interest in the dynamics of gender, race, class, and public policies, she is the author of Glory in Their Spirit: How Four Black Women Took on the Army during World War ii (University of Illinois Press, 2018). Sandra

Sandra Trudgen Dawson

African American women, the wac s offered an opportunity to claim the same. Nevertheless, this journey to full citizenship was complicated by additional hurdles for the women. Patriarchal racism, according to Bolzenius, perceived black women as sexually promiscuous, unintelligent and at best suited to