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Edited by Ezra Black, Roger Garside and Geoffrey Leech

This book is about building computer programs that parse (analyze, or diagram) sentences of a real-world English. The English we are concerned with might be a corpus of everyday, naturally-occurring prose, such as the entire text of this morning's newspaper.
Most programs that now exist for this purpose are not very successful at finding the correct analysis for everyday sentences. In contrast, the programs described here make use of a more successful statistically-driven approach.
Our book is, first, a record of a five-year research collaboration between IBM and Lancaster University. Large numbers of real-world sentences were fed into the memory of a program for grammatical analysis (including a detailed grammar of English) and processed by statistical methods. The idea is to single out the correct parse, among all those offered by the grammar, on the basis of probabilities. Second, this is a how-to book, showing how to build and implement a statistically-driven broad-coverage grammar of English. We even supply our own grammar, with the necessary statistical algorithms, and with the knowledge needed to prepare a very large set (or corpus) of sentences so that it can be used to guide the statistical processing of the grammar's rules.

A Changing World of Words

Studies in English Historical Lexicography, Lexicology and Semantics

Series:

Edited by Javier E. Díaz Vera

Advances in Corpus Linguistics

Papers from the 23rd International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 23) Göteborg 22-26 May 2002

Series:

Edited by Karin Aijmer and Bengt Altenberg

This book provides an up-to-date survey of current issues and approaches in corpus linguistics in the form of twenty-two recent research articles. The articles cover a wide range of topics illustrating the diversity of research that is characteristic of corpus linguistics today. Central themes are the relationship between theory, intuition and corpus data and the role of corpora in linguistic research. The majority of the articles are empirical studies of specific aspects of English, ranging from lexis and grammar to discourse and pragmatics. Other areas explored are language variation, language change and development, language learning, cross-linguistic comparisons of English and other languages, and the development of linguistic software tools. The contributors to the volume include some of the leading figures in the field such as M.A.K. Halliday, John Sinclair, Geoffrey Leech and Michael Hoey. The theoretical and methodological issues addressed in the volume demonstrate clearly the steady advance of an expanding discipline inspired by an empirical, usage-based approach to the study of language. The volume is essential reading for researchers and students interested in the use of computer corpora in linguistic research.

Greek στωμύλος ‘chatty’

An anomalous ō-grade (and some anomalous o-grades)

Brent Vine

. Giannakis, Emilio Crespo, and Panagiotis Filos (eds.), Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea , 29–106. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter. Georgacas, Demetrius J. 1958. A contribution to Greek word history: derivation and etymology. Glotta 36.161–193. GEW : Hjalmar Frisk, Griechisches

Michaël Peyrot

north of the Black Sea is increasing. Early Proto-Indo-European can probably be dated to ca. 4500–3500  BCE , and a later phase of Proto-Indo-European, associated with the Yamnaya culture, can be dated to ca. 3500–2500  BCE (Mallory 1989; Anthony 2007; Allentoft et al. 2015; Haak et al. 2015; Damgaard

Dark Matter

The Root *√k̑u̯el ‘Dark, Black’

Stefan Höfler

possible basic meaning of the root in question. As it happens, typological evidence suggests that words for ‘clay, mud, mire’ tend to be derived from roots denoting color concepts in the range of ‘dark, black’. This can be seen from several examples, including Gk. ἄσις f. ‘slime, mud’ [ Il . 21.321, Nic

Stefan Dollinger

base, while in fact “all these are aspects of meaning that could have been taken together” in an entirely different system (p. 77). If I may use an analogy of the television era: sometime in 1950s North America, the idea cropped up that black-and-white transmission is nice but that colour broadcasts

to them in antiquity, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, and Greeks founded cities in Egypt, Southern Italy and Sicily. Wherever they went, Greeks brought along with their language, also their worldview : their love of independence and self-government (πόλις), the appreciation of reasoned inquiry

Don Ringe

black’ because forms with a are difficult to distinguish from forms of blāc ‘shining’; I omit sæd ‘sated’ because of the labor of distinguishing its forms in - e from the more than 1,900 examples of late WS sǣde ‘said’. (There is one example of sade , but none of the gen. sg. * sades ; the

Eugen Hill

is reflected in the dual and plural forms, in the 2sg. and in the third person (the grey cells in the paradigm given in 21 above). The other stem ended in Proto-Baltic *- si̯a - (the black cells). This stem contributed the 1sg. and the participle. 6. The Traditional Approach The