tone, would, by contiguity to colored bodies, exhibit the color in a more striking manner than either black or white bodies would; …colors in juxtaposition with grey being more perceptible than when juxtaposed with white or black” (Chevreul, 1839 , translated by Spanton in 1854, Chapter VI).
frequently used across cultures: black, white, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, orange, purple, pink and grey. The term ‘clear’ could not be fit into this classification because it co-occurred with white within individuals and often enough (1% of all responses) to warrant being included as a 12th colour
be even poorer (0.30 on average). Yet, least dissimilar matching was found to be rather systematic. Particularly, a statistical test showed it was symmetric and transitive. The exact match rate was found to be different for different papers, varying from 0.99 (black paper) to 0.12 (purple paper
Using a speeded classification task, Walker and Walker (2012) demonstrated a cross-sensory correspondence between haptic size and surface brightness. Specifically, adult participants classified bright (dark) visual stimuli more quickly and accurately when this required them to press the smaller (bigger) of two response keys which were always hidden from view. The nature of the correspondence (i.e., small being aligned with bright), along with various aspects of the task situation, indicated that the congruity effect originated at later stages of information processing concerned with the semantic classification of stimuli and response selection. The study reported here provides additional evidence for the involvement of semantic coding. When the names of bright (white) edible substances (e.g., flour) and dark (black) inedible substances (e.g., soot) were classified according to their surface brightness, the same size–brightness congruity effect was observed. However, when the basis for classification of the substances was switched to their edibility, the congruity effect disappeared. It is therefore proposed that congruity effects based on cross-sensory correspondences can reflect interactions between the connotative meanings of elementary stimulus features (cf. Karwoski et al., 1942).
her synesthetic experience for each of the graphemes. Notice that black was chosen for the number ‘0’, and a light peach color was chosen for the letter ‘O’. Figure derived using TexSyn (Eagleman et al ., 2007 ). (B–D) Ambiguous contexts: the central grapheme in each part of the figure is ‘0
illustrated and described in the next sections, were presented on a computer screen with ambient illumination from a Osram Day- light fluorescent light (250 lux, 5600 ◦ K). The stroke width was approx 6 arcmin. The luminance of the white background was 88.3 cd/m 2 . Black contours had a lu- minance contrast
phenomenon, that supposedly concerns the direction of brightness induction, is observed in White’s stimulus (1979), which is a square wave grating, consisting of black and white bars. A part of a white and a black bar is replaced by identical gray patches. The gray segment on the white bar looks darker than
within this contour. Density levels are mapped to grey levels (highest density is black). This figure also shows the 68% bivariate contour ellipse (dashed line) that is logically very close to the 68% isoline as the underlying distribution is a Gaussian variable. Note that the location of the isoline
a statistical comparison between the train illusion condition and the other stimulus condition using paired t -tests for two consecutive time bins. Significant differences were observed from 2 to 9 s and 11 s after stimulus onset (black bar under the x -axis in Fig. 3), indicating that vection in
., 1991; Vecera et al ., 2002). One of the classic cues, convexity (as opposed to concavity) has been considered by some theorists to be an extremely powerful configural cue. This conclusion followed from experiments such as those of Kanizsa and Gerbino (1976), who showed subjects 8- region black and