Thirty-Five Years of Research on Police, Judicial and Administrative Cooperation
Cyrille J.C.F. Fijnaut
The Slow Erosion of Impunity
Most of the leaders mainly responsible for these massacres and genocides have enjoyed impunity. However, there is a slow popular awakening to the fact that leaders should be accountable for their crimes. A human rights regime was created after World War II, international criminal law has taken root with the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, and, in the 1990's with the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. In 1998, the Statute for an International Criminal Court was adopted, while the arrest of former dictator Pinochet in London has created both a political storm and a judiciary advance. The "Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction" have been publicized in an effort to strengthen the application of international law in national legal systems. In Cambodia and Sierra Leone, mixed national/international courts are being set up to try criminal leaders.
This unique volume offers the reader an overview of the various models which are emerging to ensure that criminal leaders and their collaborators are made accountable for their schemes and actions, and clearly illustrates how national, international and mixed national/international tribunals are slowly eroding the impunity of criminal leaders.
Edited by András Sajó
Lily Rueda Guzman and Barbora Holá
., p. 64. 35 Ibid ., p. 60. 36 Ibid ., p. 64. 37 Ruti Teitel, Rethinking the Rule of Law after Communism (Central European University Press, Budapest, 2005). 38 Jon Elster, Rosemary Nagy and Melissa Williams (eds.), Transitional Justice: Nomos li (New York University Press, New York, 2012) p
Jörg Arnold and Emily Silverman
categories (e.g., totalitarianism, fascism, national socialism, communism, socialism, mili- tary dictatorship, civil dictatorship).13 Other aspects not to be overlooked are the difficulty of determining the precise moment of a political transition or change and the fact that a particu- lar system may change
CEE histories. Indeed, ‘post-Communism is a multi-faceted, heterogeneous phenomenon shot through with paradoxes while at the same time revealing the underlying paradigmatic shifts, not only in theory but also in reality, of our times.’ 17 2. Crime Control under Communism (1945-1989) According to Fatić
Jon Spencer and Bill Hebenton
Period 1 January to 31 December 1991, Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 1992) p. 25. 22. See for example S. Weitman, 'Thinking The Revolutions of 1989', 43 British Journal of Sociology ( 1992) pp. 12-24; R. Dahrendorf, Reflections on a Revolution in Europe (London, 1990); G. Schopflin, 'Post-Communism
from Communism to Democracy. The majority of the American aid programs for the region are directed at establishing the principles of the free market economy and the due course of law. The dramatic increase in organized crime in the region reveals that many are still confusing a free market economy with
Andrzej Wasek and Stanislaw Frankowski
security apparatus, played the dominant role, most visibly during investigatory stage in the criminal proceedings. The pre-war scheme was applicable in all other cases, at least on paper. By the late 1940s it became clear that Poland was about to adopt openly the Soviet model of communism and the centres