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The Containment of Organised Crime and Terrorism

Thirty-Five Years of Research on Police, Judicial and Administrative Cooperation

Cyrille J.C.F. Fijnaut

This unique volume collects articles and contributions to edited books published throughout his distinguished career by Professor Cyrille Fijnaut, one of the world's leading experts in the fields of organised crime, security and criminology. It makes clear what issues the author systematically explored over the years and how he helped to shape the fields in which he has worked, and continues to work. The texts, reflecting the author's profound understanding of these complex fields and wealth of experience on a practical level, are presented according to topic. In addition, the volume offers English translations of seminal articles published originally in Dutch, thus making these important texts accessible to international scholars for the first time. The volume thus constitutes a unique and indispensable resource for scholars and practitioners, inside and outside the Netherlands.

Judging Criminal Leaders

The Slow Erosion of Impunity


Yves Beigbeder

In spite of the Geneva and The Hague Conventions of the late 19th century, the Twentieth Century has been a century of massacres and genocides: the massacres due to European colonialism, two World Wars, the Holocaust, the Armenian and the Rwanda genocides, the casualties caused by the Communist utopia in the USSR, China and Cambodia, and numerous civil wars.
Most of the leaders mainly responsible for these massacres and genocides have enjoyed impunity. However, there is a slow popular awakening to the fact that leaders should be accountable for their crimes. A human rights regime was created after World War II, international criminal law has taken root with the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, and, in the 1990's with the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. In 1998, the Statute for an International Criminal Court was adopted, while the arrest of former dictator Pinochet in London has created both a political storm and a judiciary advance. The "Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction" have been publicized in an effort to strengthen the application of international law in national legal systems. In Cambodia and Sierra Leone, mixed national/international courts are being set up to try criminal leaders.
This unique volume offers the reader an overview of the various models which are emerging to ensure that criminal leaders and their collaborators are made accountable for their schemes and actions, and clearly illustrates how national, international and mixed national/international tribunals are slowly eroding the impunity of criminal leaders.

Edited by András Sajó

The essays in this collection reflect on the promises, hopes and fears dominant in the narratives on and realities of doing away with authoritarian regimes. The experiences of post-communist transition are matched with accounts on authoritarian traits present in established constitutional democracies and on authoritarian inclusions preserved in the new regimes in the post-transition phase. The essays combine first-hand insider accounts with interdisciplinary scholarly analysis. The first part of the collection focuses on considerations marking the way out of authoritarian - not restricted to socialist - regimes. The second part centers around experiences and problems which surface following the days of totalitarianism, both in newly emerged democracies and in well-established constitutional systems. Issues covered range from police practices to the role of the 'people' in post-authoritarian regimes. The dilemma transparent in all essays is whether 'coming out' of authoritarianism is possible at all.

Lily Rueda Guzman and Barbora Holá

., p. 64. 35 Ibid ., p. 60. 36 Ibid ., p. 64. 37 Ruti Teitel, Rethinking the Rule of Law after Communism (Central European University Press, Budapest, 2005). 38 Jon Elster, Rosemary Nagy and Melissa Williams (eds.), Transitional Justice: Nomos li (New York University Press, New York, 2012) p

Jörg Arnold and Emily Silverman

categories (e.g., totalitarianism, fascism, national socialism, communism, socialism, mili- tary dictatorship, civil dictatorship).13 Other aspects not to be overlooked are the difficulty of determining the precise moment of a political transition or change and the fact that a particu- lar system may change

Agata Fijalkowski

CEE histories. Indeed, ‘post-Communism is a multi-faceted, heterogeneous phenomenon shot through with paradoxes while at the same time revealing the underlying paradigmatic shifts, not only in theory but also in reality, of our times.’ 17 2. Crime Control under Communism (1945-1989) According to Fatić

Jon Spencer and Bill Hebenton

Period 1 January to 31 December 1991, Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 1992) p. 25. 22. See for example S. Weitman, 'Thinking The Revolutions of 1989', 43 British Journal of Sociology ( 1992) pp. 12-24; R. Dahrendorf, Reflections on a Revolution in Europe (London, 1990); G. Schopflin, 'Post-Communism

Janos Fehérváry

from Communism to Democracy. The majority of the American aid programs for the region are directed at establishing the principles of the free market economy and the due course of law. The dramatic increase in organized crime in the region reveals that many are still confusing a free market economy with

Andrzej Wasek and Stanislaw Frankowski

security apparatus, played the dominant role, most visibly during investigatory stage in the criminal proceedings. The pre-war scheme was applicable in all other cases, at least on paper. By the late 1940s it became clear that Poland was about to adopt openly the Soviet model of communism and the centres