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Carter Vaughn Findley

of spreading democracy as opposed to Communism. In the early 1950s, social scientists and historians interested in the Middle East began to focus on Turkey and look for explanations of the contrast between Turkey’s democratizing trend and the wave of Arab “socialism” that seemed to be sweeping the

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

awaiting new occasions. At a time when accusations of “Jacobinism” flew about as easily as accusations of “Communism” did in the 1950s, it is not surprising that the Austrian envoy became the ringleader of the anti-Mouradgea campaign. Not only was he a servant of the Austrian emperor Franz II (r. 1792