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Harley Balzer and Jon Askonas

Russia and China both are endeavoring to transform Soviet-style R&D systems characterized by separate education, research and business spheres into something more suited to a knowledge economy supporting innovation. The Triple Helix model is an attractive configuration, derived from the practices of the most successful innovation systems, and suggesting that the three key actors—universities, business, and the state—might in some instances substitute for each other. A model placing the state at the center appeals to non-democratic regimes and countries endeavoring to catch up with OECD nations.

We compare the Chinese and Russian efforts to implement a Triple Helix program by examining institutional change, epistemic communities, funding, and the role of the state, with nanotechnology as a case study. While both nations have introduced major programs and allocated significant funding, we find that China has been vastly more successful than Russia in promoting collaboration among universities, business, and government to advance research and innovation. We attribute the difference to the quality of state policies that provide incentives for agents and epistemic communities to alter their behavior, an outcome facilitated by conditions at the beginning of reforms, which made the Chinese far more open to learning.

Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić

-wing military coup overthrew the democratically elected government of President João Goulart. Freire was accused of preaching communism and arrested. He was imprisoned by the military government for seventy days and exiled for his work in the national literacy campaign, of which he had served as director

Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić

Jesus Christ”, writes Miranda, “the messianic kingdom has arrived.” For Miranda, the Bible is a subversive document that preached communism long before the time of Karl Marx. Miranda sees much in common between history as liberation from alienation as described by Marx, and the eschaton, or the divine

Michael A. Peters

Revolution of 1911. ( Mao is surely right to mention the May 4th Movement in terms of the establishment and development of communism. After all, it was an international liberalism led by Britain and France and abetted by usa

Jon Levin, Peter McLaren and Shindale Seale

-powered beings. (Romagnoli & Pagnucci, 2013, pp. 20–21, 35). The precursor group, The Minutemen, were modeled after the wwii Invaders but had far darker skeletons in their closets. Issues such as drugs, sexual and domestic violence, rape, murder, homosexuality, democracy, communism, and political strife were