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Steffen Bay Rasmussen

diplomacy, discourse analysis Introduction This is not an exercise in ‘national branding’; it is not ‘propaganda’, because we know that this does not work. It is the recognition of a fundamental shift, and especially so in relatively open societies, in how power, influence and decision-making have spread

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Florian Schneider

Visual Political Communication in Popular Chinese Television Series has been granted the EastAsiaNet 2014 Award!

In Visual Political Communication in Popular Chinese Television Series, Florian Schneider analyses political discourses in Chinese TV dramas, the most popular entertainment format in China today. Schneider shows that despite their often nationalistic stories of glorious emperors and courageous officials, such programmes should not be mistaken for official propaganda. Instead, the highly didactical messages of such series are the outcome of complex cultural governance practices, which are influenced by diffuse political interests, commercial considerations, viewing habits, and ideological assumptions. Schneider argues that these interlinking factors lead to a highly restrictive creative environment and to conservative entertainment content that ultimately risks creating precisely the kind of passive masses that Chinese media workers and government officials are trying so hard to emancipate.

Nationalism from the Left

The Bulgarian Communist Party during the Second World War and the Early Post-War Years

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Yannis Sygkelos

'Nationalism from the Left' analyses the case of the BCP as a Marxist institution which increasingly adopted and adapted nationalism; it contributes to the examination of the relatively underresearched field of communist national propaganda, as only in the last decade, have researchers become interested in this topic. It explains the reasons for this and provides evidence of the Party’s nationalism across a number of spheres of political life: domestic and foreign policy, school text books, historiography, festivities and symbols. Thus, the Marxist nationalist discourse of the BCP was all-encompassing. In contrast to many works on national communist parties, 'Nationalism from the Left' identifies many international parallels and presents an historical introduction to the reconciliation of Marxism and nationalism.

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Steffen Bay Rasmussen

, 2006), pp. 47–87, pp. 53–56. 50 Roland Barthes quoted in Louise Phillips and Marianne W. Jørgensen, Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method (London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2002), p. 17. 51 Christer Jönsson and Martin Hall, Essence of Diplomacy (Houndsmills: Palgrave, 2005), p. 86. 52 Iver B

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Marek Neuman

’s contribution to the democratic transitions in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. 12 Landman and Larizza show in a comprehensive discourse analysis of some twenty-three EU documents that the terms remain undefined, and are often being presented as means to the achievement of other ends, particularly

Symbolic Insult in Diplomacy

A Subtle Game of Diplomatic Slap

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Alisher Faizullaev

Abstract

This paper approaches symbolic insult in diplomacy as the use of symbolic means by states to oppress the opponent’s sense of Self, to hurt its self-esteem and social status in order to achieve their foreign policy objectives, or as a reaction to a threat from Other. The paper posits that diplomatic actors are extremely sensitive to Self related matters, and may use such sensitivity for influencing each other, bargaining over the issues of importance, and simply defending their sense of Self while they confront the opponent. The enormous importance of collective Self in diplomacy may instigate a variety of social strategic games, including tacit and deceptive ones. The diplomatic actor’s acute sensitivity to recognition, honor and social status sharpens its sense of Self, which makes any humiliation painful. Therefore, protection of self-regard, dignity and public face becomes a critical issue in diplomatic practice. At the same time, that makes the diplomatic actor’s Self vulnerable, and provides the opposing Other opportunities for manipulation and symbolic abuse.

The paper argues that symbolic insult in diplomacy occurs in a highly normative environment, and depends on political objectives, shared knowledge, social perception and practices, and can negatively affect relationships between diplomatic actors, the opponent’s self-perception, self-feeling and security of Self—ontological security. I distinguish three forms of symbolic insult used in diplomacy: by misrecognition (“diplomatic bypassing”), direct confrontation (“diplomatic punch”) and concealed verbal or nonverbal actions (“diplomatic slap”). The paper focuses on the third, indirect form, or “diplomatic slap” which employs obscure symbolic insults as a means of tacit manipulation for influencing the opponent, or as an instrument of restoring social status.

By highlighting interest-based (political), value-based (moral), relationship-based (social) and right-based (legal) imperatives of international diplomacy, this paper shows that diplomatic actors can use symbolically expressed but subtle “slap” for balancing their interests and relationships in dealing with the opponent: Tacit or implicit symbolic insult usually appears ambiguous which may allow the offender to promote its interests but also to stay engaged with the victim.

Damien Spry

are included in the final corpus. The selected posts were reviewed manually employing a form of discourse analysis comparable to genre analysis 47 that categorises content according to its type and/or purpose. The use of a single coder meant there were no concerns about intercoder agreement. However

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Marek Neuman

’s contribution to the democratic transitions in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. 12 Landman and Larizza show in a comprehensive discourse analysis of some twenty-three EU documents that the terms remain undefined, and are often being presented as means to the achievement of other ends, particularly

Liudmila Mikalayeva

Asian Linguistics Society (2004) , vol. 1, 2008, pp. 59-66. 8) Germana D’Acquisto and Stefania D’Avanzo, ‘The Role of “Shall” and “Should” in Two International Treaties’, Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines , vol. 3, no. 1, 2009, pp. 36-45. L. Mikalayeva / The Hague Journal

Kristin Haugevik

, Norwegian Ministry of Children and Equality, Ny rapport til FN om barnekonvensjonen [New Report to the un about the Child Convention] (6 October 2016). 31 Iver Neumann, ‘Discourse Analysis’, in Audie Klotz and Deepa Prakash (eds), Qualitative Methods in International Relations: A Pluralist Guide