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Making Russians

Meaning and Practice of Russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863


Darius Staliūnas

Making Russians is an innovative study dealing with Russian nationalities policy in Lithuania and Belarus in the aftermath of the 1863 Uprising. The book devotes most attention to imperial confessional and language policy, for in Russian discourse at that time it was religion and language that were considered to be the most important criteria determining nationality. The account of Russian nationalities policy presented here differs considerably from the assessments usually offered by historians from east-central Europe primarily because the author provides a more subtle description of the aims of imperial nationalities policy, rejecting the claim that the Russian authorities consistently sought to assimilate members of other national groups. At the same time the interpretation this study offers opens a discussion with western and Russian historians, especially those, who lay heavy emphasis on discourse analysis. This study asserts that the rhetoric of officials and certain public campaigners was influenced by a concept of political correctness, which condemned all forms of ethnic denationalisation. A closer look at the implementation of discriminatory policy allows us to discern within Russian imperial policy more attempts to assimilate or otherwise repress the cultures of non-dominant national groups than it is possible to appreciate simply by analysing discourse alone.


Maciej Górny

In the long 19th century the social sciences were rapidly developing. One of their popular research fields was national character. It was believed to manifest itself in high and rural culture, art and architecture, literature and history, forms of religiosity and philosophy, and – last but not least – in psychology. The present paper analyses scientific discourses referring to national, cultural and racial character of the “others” - identified mostly with the war enemy - in the years from 1914 to the mid-1920s. Its geographical range covers Eastern and Central Europe as well as (to a lesser extent) France, Great Britain and the USA. The author refers to the methods of historische Stereotypenforschung along with the discourse analysis and comparative history of science to describe not only the intellectual tools and motifs of the genre but also the interdependences between various sciences within and beyond every one of the countries under scrutiny.


Jonas Carlquist


Philology deals with language in written historical sources. Philologists usually combine literary criticism, history and language in some way, depending on their aims. During the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries one key objective has been to compare the existing copies of a text in order to come as close as feasible to the original. However, at the end of the twentieth century some scholars changed focus from the original toward the copy. The copy was seen as “a version” which contained information about a specific sociotextual context both according to scribes and readers. The physical and material context of a version also attracted more attention. Information about both the sociotextual and the physical context can be used by researchers to explain behaviours, thinking, and to discuss “what is said between the lines.” But to succeed philologists need to take an interdisciplinarity approach. We cannot understand manuscripts just from their content, we cannot ignore the historical and sociotextual context to which the manuscripts belonged. Our interpretation is based on a profound understanding of the period, its religion, politics, culture and arts. This chapter will give an insight into how philology can be combined with critical discourse analysis in order to contribute to understanding different religious contexts and gaps in historical explanations. The focus will be on vernacular manuscripts from the late Swedish Middle Ages.

Shrinking Citizenship

Discursive Practices that Limit Democratic Participation in Latvian Politics


Edited by Maria Golubeva and Robert Gould

The book, based on research results from a three-year study of parliamentary and media debates in Latvia, analyses the discourses of Latvian politicians and the media about nation, citizenship, cultural diversity, history and the nation-state. This is the first large-scale study of political debates in a Baltic State from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Separate chapters, by researchers from Canada, Latvia, Lithuania and the UK, analyse the intersections between national identity construction, national mythmaking, concepts of citizenship, journalistic action, press ownership and questions of control of political and media discourses. All of these have impact on the fundamental questions of the relationship between individuals and the state. The authors conclude that even after the accession to the European Union in 2004, political pressures in Latvia, as also frequently on the political Right in other EU countries, promote ethnic membership as the guiding factor of state-building.


Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

. Standlea David M. , Oil, Globalization, and the War for the Arctic Refuge ( State University of New York Press , United States , 2006 ). Suopajärvi Leena , “ The right to mine? – Discourse analysis of social impact assessments of mining projects in Finnish Lapland in the 2000s ,” in: Barents Studies


Gerald Zojer

region’s hydrocarbon resources. Based on an analysis of the national Arctic strategies of the eight Arctic states, this section will show that the exploitation of the region’s hydrocarbon resources is promoted by all Arctic states. A discourse analysis of the ministerial meeting reports from the Arctic